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repressive tolerance

The passive acceptance of social and governmental practices, policies and actions which restrict freedom in an absolute sense. The Frankfurt School theorist Herbert Marcuse coined the term ...

repressive tolerance

repressive tolerance   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... tolerance The passive acceptance of social and governmental practices, policies and actions which restrict freedom in an absolute sense. The Frankfurt School theorist Herbert Marcuse coined the term in an essay of that title for a book co-written with Robert Wolff and Barrington Moore , Critique of Pure Tolerance ( 1965 ). Repressive tolerance, Marcuse argues, takes two main forms: (i) the unthinking acceptance of entrenched attitudes and ideas, even when these are obviously damaging to other people, or indeed the environment (the painfully...

repressive tolerance

repressive tolerance  

The passive acceptance of social and governmental practices, policies and actions which restrict freedom in an absolute sense. The Frankfurt School theorist Herbert Marcuse coined the term in an ...
Compatibility: Neither Required nor an Issue

Compatibility: Neither Required nor an Issue   Reference library

Ullah Jan Abid

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,474 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the unknown, exaggerating how inhumanly an Islamic State will act once in power, have enough misconceptions to do so. However, if one worries that a democratic Islamic State might suppress opposition, lack tolerance, deny pluralism, and violate human rights, the same concern must apply equally to the plight of those who are living under the most repressive Western-sponsored regimes in the Muslim world. It must be clear that it is definitely not Islam that hinders transformation to democracy nor Islamic principles that justify their never-ending oppression. If...

Churches in Context: The Jesus Movement in the Roman World

Churches in Context: The Jesus Movement in the Roman World   Reference library

Daniel N. Schowalter

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
17,885 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Judaism began to develop in new directions under rabbinic leadership. Meanwhile, the churches continued to attract mostly Gentiles. Ten years later, after Titus's death in 81 ce , the churches and Judaism were evolving differently, but they both faced new challenges under the repressive policies of Vespasian's other son, Domitian. A Younger Brother's Revenge: The Reign of Domitian Many Romans greeted the accession of Domitian...

Herbert Marcuse

Herbert Marcuse  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1898–1979)German-born US philosopher, famous in the 1960s as the theorist of the new revolutionary left.Born in Berlin, Marcuse was educated at the University of Freiburg, where he gained his ...
toleration

toleration  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...within the liberal conception of tolerance, has been a source of debate—in particular for those who equate the liberal democratic tradition with certain cultural or ethnic foundations. Some argue, in this context, that neutrality on many points is equivalent to moral relativism and that the values of liberal (or Western) society are substantive and universalizable, rather than simply formal, procedural, and local. Herbert Marcuse , in his influential critique of “repressive tolerance” ( 1969 ), argued that the tolerance espoused by modern liberalism was...

Allen Adair

Allen Adair   Reference library

Kim Worthington

The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
350 words

...not share Allen's love of the gum country, viewing its hardship and struggle as necessary only until they can afford to return to Auckland. As the marriage dissolves into bare mutual tolerance, the couple vie for the affection of their eldest daughter Joan. Allen is gentle and beneficent to all but his wife. Marion is given unsympathetic treatment as the embodiment of the repressive conformity that Mander believed threatened the potential of New Zealand and the sanctity and individuality of spirited pioneers like Allen. After discord and suspicion during Allen's...

Marcuse, Herbert

Marcuse, Herbert (1898–1979)   Quick reference

Geraldine Lievesley

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
283 words

...technological society was able to contain the forces of revolution by co‐opting the working class through consumerism, creating ‘false needs’, compounding alienation, and producing a system where people are enslaved but believe they have freedom (‘unreal freedom’). In Repressive Tolerance ( 1965 ), he argued that liberal democracy defined the parameters of political debate and so blocked any real criticism (although this could be argued to be an un- falsifiable statement). Marcuse acclaimed the New Left for its confrontational politics and its creation of...

Marcuse, Herbert

Marcuse, Herbert (1898–1979)   Quick reference

Who's Who in the Twentieth Century

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History
Length:
275 words

...colleagues he argued that while the modern industrial society had satisfied the material needs of man it had done so only by ignoring his true needs and by restricting his liberty. The apparent freedom present in many industrial societies was discounted by Marcuse as ‘repressive tolerance’. There was, therefore, no way in which a ‘liberated’ man could ever come to terms with capitalism. In addition to the repressions of capitalism, Marcuse also identified, in his Eros and Civilization ( 1955 ), the repressions imposed on us by the unconscious mind. In...

Marcuse, Herbert

Marcuse, Herbert (1898–1979)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...industry . In 1965 , in a high-profile essay published as part of book co-written with Robert Wolff and Barrington Moore , Critique of Pure Tolerance , Marcuse coined the famous concept of repressive tolerance , by which he meant that the fact that a particular state allows certain practices should not deceive us into thinking genuine freedom prevails and by the same token nor should we tolerate the repressive elements of the state. He dedicated the essay to his students at Brandeis University in a gesture of solidarity. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s,...

Civil Religion

Civil Religion   Reference library

Dustin E. Hannum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Bellah's argument and employment of the term has proven both influential and provocative, sparking debate among scholars about everything from his definition of the term, to his positive analysis of the effects of civil religion as an edifying (as opposed to potentially repressive) force, to whether anything like a civil religion even exists in American culture. Still, the concept has proven to be widely influential among scholars interested in American ideology and mythology. One major aspect of American civil religion for scholars interested in its...

conscientious objectors

conscientious objectors   Reference library

Martin Ceadel

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...of those either volunteering or conscripted in First World War). Although their numbers increased, the UK's Second World War COs had even less influence than their predecessors: generous treatment embarrassed most into co-operative behaviour, though a few complained about repressive tolerance. Martin Ceadel Barker, R. , Conscience, Government and War (London, 1982). Prasad, D. , and Smythe, T. , Conscription (London, 1968). Sibley, M. Q. , and Jacob, P. E. , Conscription of Conscience (Ithaca, NY,...

Novikov, Nikolai Ivanovich

Novikov, Nikolai Ivanovich (1744–1818)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
647 words

...Enlightenment thinkers. With the possible exception of Catherine the Great, Novikov was the central figure in integrating the Russian reading public into the debates of European letters. Ultimately, Novikov fell afoul of the authorities, in part because of the increasingly repressive atmosphere of post- 1789 Russia, but largely because of his activities as a Moscow Rosicrucian, the most mystical and impenetrable of Russian Masonic lodges. First investigated in 1782 , then again in 1785 , he saw his publishing enterprise severely disrupted by a nationwide...

Mijle, Adriaan

Mijle, Adriaan (1538–1590)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
624 words

...of William of Orange. He was a member of one of the most important families in his native town of Dordrecht in the county of Holland. In 1563 , soon after his successful legal studies in Louvain, he was appointed to the Council of Holland ( Hof van Holland ). When the repressive Fernando Álvarez de Toledo , duke of Alba, arrived in the Netherlands in 1568 , Mijle went to Italy under the pretext of weak health. In reality it was because he shared the new Calvinist ideas. In 1573 , after a short term on the court of the Elector Palatine Frederick...

Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,537 words

...and activities of Protestant leaders, one should note that Transylvania was at the forefront of religious tolerance from as early as the middle of the century. The Diet of Torda granted the Lutherans freedom of worship in 1550 , in 1557 the same diet recognized the Lutheran church as an “accepted religion,” in 1564 it extended the same status to the Calvinist church, and in 1568 it legislated universal freedom of worship. This unusual tolerance allowed unhindered preaching by such distinguished Protestant theologians as Johannes Honterus, who spread...

paganism

paganism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Claims for pre-Christian origins have always had great appeal among the general public, if only for the glamour antiquity confers; currently they are more popular than ever, for pagan beliefs (especially Celtic ones) are seen by many as admirable, and Christian tradition as repressive and dull. However, there is an important distinction between showing that a custom or belief is older than Christianity, and arguing that when it is found among Christians it means paganism is still alive. Some aspects of the supernatural (e.g. fear of ghosts and witchcraft...

Curione, Celio Secondo

Curione, Celio Secondo (1503–1569)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
844 words

...widespread, as he appears among the first people prosecuted by the Roman Inquisition, which at that time had just been reorganized ( 1542 ). Even the duke of Florence, Cosimo I de' Medici , was on his trail, although in those years he was anything but eager to support the repressive work of the Inquisition. Sensing the danger, Curione promptly left Italy, taking refuge in Switzerland, from where he returned a few months later to retrieve his family (around 1529–1530 he had married Margherita Isacchi , who bore him eight children) and to deliver to...

Censorship in France

Censorship in France   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,393 words

.... ‘A rigid rule, a lax practice’ was how de Tocqueville characterized the administration of the ancien régime , though a more accurate description might be that the regime wavered alternately between authoritarianism and paternalism. In the same way, one could say that the repressive nature of ancien régime censorship was mitigated by its inefficiency. The Revolution briefly inaugurated one of the most liberal press regimes ever known; but Imperial and Bourbon authorities reimposed strict controls over the printed word. 1. Reformation to Revolution The...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

The Islamic World: Past and Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,198 words

...East, for example, the British determined the political boundaries of Iraq and Kuwait, and they created the new country of Jordan. Such artificial borders caused ethnic, regional, and religious conflicts, and provided a weak basis for the legitimacy of rulers. As a result, repressive governments came to power in some emerging Muslim countries. After achieving independence, many Muslim states imposed limits on the role of Islam in public life. Some governments, such as those of Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser and Algeria's FLN party, adopted a...

prostitution

prostitution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,074 words

...status to aspire to the few professions that respectable women could participate in. Conversely, many people who are advocating a departure from the shame culture surrounding sex in a variety of arenas, including sex work, argue that some prostitutes work in order to challenge repressive gender roles which restrict women's sexuality to a romantic ideology and oppressive patriarchal marriages . As these activists are also working to change women's opportunities and thus eliminate prostitution as a forced, last-ditch option for staying alive, they are not...

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