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religion, Minoan and Mycenaean

Bronze age Cretan (Minoan) religion assumed what we may take to be its canonical form with the second palaces in the middle bronze age. From the latter half of the ...

religion, Minoan and Mycenaean

religion, Minoan and Mycenaean   Reference library

B. C. Dietrich and Alan Peatfield

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,328 words

...of Greek religion, the precise ratio of old to new will never be known. See Minoan civilization ; Mycenaean civilization . M. P. Nilsson , The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and its Survival in Greek Religion , 2nd edn. (1950); B. C. Dietrich . The Origins of Greek Religion (1974); B. Rutkowski , The Cult Places of the Aegean (1986); N. Marinatos , Minoan Religion (1993); O. Dickinson , The Aegean Bronze Age (1994), 257–94; L. Goodison and C. E. Morris (eds.), Ancient Goddesses: the Myths and the Evidence (1998); R. Laffineur and R. Hägg ...

religion, Minoan and Mycenaean

religion, Minoan and Mycenaean  

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Overview Page
Bronze age Cretan (Minoan) religion assumed what we may take to be its canonical form with the second palaces in the middle bronze age. From the latter half of the ...
Mesopotamian mythology

Mesopotamian mythology  

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Religion
Just as Minoan, Mycenaean, Dorian, and Ionian myths are all part of what we think of as Greek mythology, with its diversity, its conflicting versions of particular events, and its ...
Greek religion

Greek religion  

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The religion of the ancient Greek world. It was polytheistic, involving the worship of several gods and goddesses. The most important deities were the sky-god Zeus (ruler of Olympus), his wife Hera ...
Britomartis

Britomartis   Reference library

Herbert Jennings Rose, B. C. Dietrich, and Alan Peatfield

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
203 words

...on Aegina, disappeared in the cult of Artemis as minor satellites or epithets. A stronger Minoan connection is suggested by an alternative etymology for Diktynna, associated with the Linear A word di-ka-ta , and Cretan mountain names (Dikte, Endiktis, Iuktas); this would make Diktynna an epithet for a mountain deity, perhaps worshipped at the Minoan peak sanctuaries. M. P. Nilsson , The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and its Survival in Greek Religion 510–13, and GGR 1 3 (1967), 311 f.; LIMC 3/1 (1984), 169–70; G. Owens, Kadmos 32 (1993), 156–61....

Mycenaean civilization

Mycenaean civilization   Reference library

Oliver T. P. K. Dickinson

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,774 words

... civilization ( see also religion, Minoan and Mycenaean ) takes its name from the spectacular finds made by Heinrich Schliemann at Mycenae , and was first systematically defined by Christos Tsountas . He applied the term Mycenaean to all Aegean Late Bronze Age material, but it is now confined to the culture which developed on the mainland in the late bronze age. The stylistic divisions of the Mycenaean pottery style (LH (late Helladic) I, IIA, etc.) provide a well-defined relative chronology, but historically the Mycenaean age is better divided into...

Helladic

Helladic   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
6,287 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Classical Greek religion (Zeus, Hera, Athena , Poseidon, Hermes and others). In the early Mycenaean period ( lh i–ii ), however, there appears to have been an eagerness to adopt Minoan religious symbols and practices. Mycenaean iconography was largely taken from the Minoans, including a goddess figure and priestesses, sacred plants and animals; the Minoan snake cult was apparently adopted, and other similarities include the use of painted plaster offering tables, the practice of animal sacrifice and the appearance of horns of consecration and double axes in...

Labyrinth

Labyrinth   Reference library

George M. A. Hanfmann and B. C. Dietrich

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
307 words

... Egypt, the Aegean and the Levant ( 1995 )). A plausible derivation of the non-Greek word from (Lydian) λάβρυς ‘double axe’ connects the labyrinth with a potent Minoan religious symbol (Plut. Quaest. Graec. 45, 301f–302a (weapon of Zeus Labraundos; see labraunda ), A. Heubeck, Praegraeca ( 1961 ), 25). Linear B ( see mycenaean language ) mentions a labyrinth ( dapurito -) of Potnia (KN Gg 702; cf. X 140). R. Eilmann , Labyrinthos (1931); W. Pötscher , Aspekte und Probleme der Minoischen Religion (1990), 52–66. George M. A. Hanfmann / B. C....

Cretan cults and myths

Cretan cults and myths   Reference library

B. C. Dietrich and Alan Peatfield

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
943 words

... 1979 , 2–22). The Archaic Delphinium at Dreros combined the Minoan form of the bench-shrine with the interior sacrificial hearth of the Mycenaean megaron. The temple contained bronze figures of the trinity of Leto , Apollo, and Artemis . Leto's (Dor. Lato ) cults at Gortyn and Phaistos (as Phytia) celebrated the withdrawal of young men from the agela on reaching manhood and marriageable age. At the Ecdysia festival they stripped off the girlish clothes of their childhood. The implications of sex change are reflected in myth (Ov. Met. 9. 666–797; Ant....

snakes

snakes   Reference library

Irad Malkin

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
492 words

...were regarded in Greek and Roman religion mostly as guardians, e.g. of houses, tombs, springs, and altars. Snakes appear as attributes of bell-shaped idols in Minoan houses and small sanctuaries; coiled terracotta snakes were found in Mycenaean palaces, perhaps indicating their later, attested function as domestic guardians. See religion, minoan and mycenaean . Probably evoking their hidden, secretive natural habitat of crevices and the world of ‘under’ in general, snakes were associated with chthonian powers . They were linked either with what emerges...

Minoan mythology

Minoan mythology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

..., the Mycenaeans invaded and a cross-fertilization of ideas took place. By 1300 so-called Linear B, a Greek language script useful for such things as inventories and other lists, but not appropriate for literary purposes, was in use. Among the Linear B tablets, deciphered in 1953 by John Chadwick and Michael Ventris, are lists of offerings to gods. These lists indicate a shift away from a goddess-based mythology and religion to one presided over by the male god, Zeus . In Linear B, we discover a pre- Homeric and pre-classical Mycenaean-Minoan version...

Minos

Minos   Reference library

Herbert Jennings Rose, Herbert William Parke, Charles Martin Robertson, B. C. Dietrich, and Alan Peatfield

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
651 words

...subject in Greek painting from the Archaic period (e.g. red-figure cup by Epictetus, Beazley, ARV 2 72, no. 17); but King Minos was rarely represented on his own in art, generally in his function as judge of the dead. See religion, minoan and mycenaean . F. Poland , RE 15 (1932), 1890–1927; R. F. Willetts , Cretan Cults and Festivals (1962); N. Schlager , in Fragen und Probleme der bronzezeitlichen ägaischen Gyptik: Corpus der minoischen und mykenischen Siegel , Beiheift 3 (1989), 225–39; M. Robertson , History of Greek Art (1975), 804, 815;...

Minoan

Minoan   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
9,676 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and other female votive figurines, some with birds and one with raised arms, which may have represented the goddess. Paintings on Post-Palatial larnakes (clay coffins) frequently incorporated plant and animal motifs derived from earlier ritual art and sometimes show actual scenes of sacrifice ( see also §4(iii) below ). See also Cycladic , §3; Painting , §II; and Sculpture , §I. A. J. Evans : The Mycenaean Tree and Pillar Cult , J. Hell. Stud. , xxi (1901), pp. 99–204 M. P. Nilsson : The MinoanMycenaean Religion and its Survival in Greek Religion ...

Aegean Prehistoric Cultures

Aegean Prehistoric Cultures   Reference library

Neil Asher Silberman, Cyprian Broodbank, Alan Peatfield, Louise Hitchcock, James C. Wright, Kim S. Shelton, Elizabeth B. French, and Kim S. Shelton

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
8,827 words

...from the Minoan, but with Mycenaean subjects (such as combat and hunting scenes and fantastic animals) and forms (as exemplified in the shapes and decoration of pottery). Scripts of texts written at different sites are in the same language, and names and places document extensive geographic and economic interaction. Land tenure, a taxation structure, craft groups, administrative and religious officials, and names of deities readable as, for example, Zeus, Athena, Hephaistos, and Dionysos, are recorded in the texts. An established Mycenaean religion begins to...

Minoan civilization

Minoan civilization   Reference library

John Bennet

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,502 words

... civilization , the bronze age civilization of Crete ( c. 3500–1100 bc ). See also religion, minoan and mycenaean . The term ‘Minoan’ (after the legendary Minos ) was coined by Sir Arthur Evans to distinguish the prehistoric culture of Crete revealed in his excavations beginning in 1900 at the site of Cnossus (Κνωσσός) from the Mycenaean civilization revealed by Schliemann on the Greek mainland. Evans, using the pottery styles found at Cnossus divided the civilization into three phases, early, middle, and late Minoan (EM, MM, LM), a scheme...

Knossos (Cnossus)

Knossos (Cnossus)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
4,959 words
Illustration(s):
3

...of Late Minoan IB ( c.1490 bce ), Mycenaean Greeks occupied and remodeled Knossos. The introduction of Linear B writing and many of the frescoes, such as the famous bull leapers and perhaps the frescoes in the Corridor of the Procession, are assigned to this period. Surrounding villas, including the one known as the Unexplored Mansion, were reinhabited. Linear B texts and Knossian pottery from the Ulu Burun shipwreck indicate that Knossos remained a dominant power on the island. The palace suffered its final destruction in Late Minoan IIIB (early thirteenth...

Altar

Altar   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,678 words

...the Late Bronze Age at least, which were mainly occupied by large terracotta votive figures. In Minoan and Mycenaean religion the ‘tables of offering’ were sometimes set on or near larger altars. Altars occur in the courts of Minoan palaces and villas and in Minoan peak sanctuaries (e.g. Mt Iouktas), where they are accompanied by sacrificial debris and offerings. Altars were frequently equipped with ‘horns of consecration’. In the Middle Minoan ii shrine at Anemospilia , near Archanes , a low altar was apparently used for human sacrifice. The Late Bronze...

Crete

Crete   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
8,163 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Carolina Press, 1993. Nilsson, Martin P. The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and Its Survival in Greek Religion . 2nd rev. ed. Lund, Sweden: C. W. K. Gleerup, 1950. Nilsson, Martin P. The Mycenaean Origin of Greek Mythology . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1932. Barry B. Powell Archaeology of Crete Crete, one of the largest islands in the Mediterranean, has produced evidence for continuous phases of ancient civilizations from the Neolithic to late Roman times. Although recent investigations have revealed earlier human presence on the island, the...

Priests and Priestesses, Greek

Priests and Priestesses, Greek   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,406 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Roman and Religion, subentry Greek Religion .] Bibliography Beard, Mary , and John North , eds. Pagan Priests: Religion and Power in the Ancient World . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1990. Connelly, Joan Breton . Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2007. Higgins, Reynold Alleyne . Minoan and Mycenaean Art . New York: Praeger, 1967. Kirchner, J. , ed. Inscriptiones Graecae II , 1034–1217b, 3789–4350, 2d ed. (Pars I, 1916; Pars III, 1935). Reprint. Chicago: Ares,...

trees, sacred

trees, sacred   Reference library

Sam Eitrem, Johan Harm Croon, B. C. Dietrich, and Alan Peatfield

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
508 words

...in cult in the Aegean world since the bronze age ( see religion, minoan and mycenaean ). They perhaps symbolized the renewal of life, appearing as central features in a sanctuary or associated with anthropomorphic deities. The (probably genuine) ring of Nestor shows a Tree of Life (for which notion see G. Zuntz , Persephone ( 1971 ), 386 ff.). Sometimes single boughs stand inside the horns of consecration (e.g. Psychro plaque). The tree continued in Classical cult: Dionysus stands before a Minoan-type tree sanctuary on a red-figure vase from Gela . He...

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