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regulation

The power of an embryo to continue normal or approximately normal development or regeneration in spite of experimental interference by ablation, implantation, transplantation, etc.

regulation

regulation   Reference library

The Handbook of International Financial Terms

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... . Rules governing the behaviour and activities of firms or individuals. See capital adequacy ; compliance ; Securities and Exchange Commission ; Securities and Investments Board...

regulation

regulation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
25 words

... the power of an embryo to continue normal or approximately normal development or regeneration in spite of experimental interference by ablation, implantation, transplantation,...

regulation

regulation   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,511 words

...regulation arising from the reform and streamlining of contemporary welfare states. It involves departure from ‘old regulation’, such as public ownership, planning, and central administration. Classic definitions of regulation focus on state regulation of private activity. Recent scholarship also includes regulation between private actors, self‐regulation, and the regulation of public powers by the state itself or private actors. Public powers can be regulated through ‘new public management’ which involves the transfer of private sector management ethos and...

regulation

regulation   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
176 words

... of nationalized industries began in 1979 . The theory of regulation has lagged behind the practice, so that the aim of regulation has sometimes been unclear. Some writers accuse industries of ‘capturing’ their regulators: that is, of bargaining with them for a pattern of regulation which the industry and the regulator can live with, but which fails to protect the public as the legislation intended. ‘Regulation’ is also used more broadly to cover any publicly imposed rules governing a firm or industry, especially safety and environmental...

regulation

regulation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
139 words

...bodies, or by quasi-autonomous non-governmental organizations (quangos). In the last resort regulation relies on legal sanctions, but the largest proportion of effective regulation is done by the regulators setting standards which organizations then try to comply with as a matter of self-discipline. See also bank regulation ; self-regulation...

regulation

regulation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... The imposition by a government of controls over the decisions of individuals or firms. Such controls are often imposed in industries where there is monopoly or oligopoly, in order to prevent firms from exploiting their market power at the expense of the public. Regulation may be seen as an alternative to nationalization . For example, the types of industries that were formerly nationalized in the UK have usually been regulated in the USA. The main vehicle for regulation in the UK is the Competition and Markets Authority . Regulation is especially...

regulation

regulation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... The imposition by a government of controls over the decisions of individuals or firms. Such controls are often imposed in industries where there is monopoly or oligopoly, in order to prevent firms from exploiting their market power at the expense of the public. Regulation may be seen as an alternative to nationalization . For example, the types of industries that were formerly nationalized in the UK have usually been regulated in the USA. The main vehicle for regulation in the UK is the Competition Commission . Regulation is especially important in...

regulation

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A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
447 words

... ( governance ) 1. ( institutional regulation ) Control and supervision of organizations exercised by external authorities through the application of rules. 2. ( media regulation, media controls ) Laws and guidelines concerning media content and the conduct of media industries , which vary by country and platform (though broadcasting tends to be most heavily regulated). Media regulation can be divided into economic regulation , technical regulation , and content regulation. Formal controls include government regulation of the mass...

regulation

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A Dictionary of Agriculture and Land Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
56 words

... A rule or law made by a government or official body. Regulations are generally those rules or processes which must be followed in order to comply with the law or the requirements of a particular organization. They are therefore distinct from guidance or good practice , which are usually encouraged rather than required. See also legislation...

regulation

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A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... A general term for a range of activities that is focused on influencing and controlling policy and practice at the local level. See audit commission ; inspection ; performance management ....

regulation

regulation ((in embryology))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
92 words

...regulation (in embryology) The processes involved in animal embryonic development that counteract any abnormalities that may arise in the different developmental stages. Regulative (or regulation) embryos or eggs can compensate for the removal of sections of the embryo or egg at an early stage of development so that subsequent development is not affected; in such embryos the direction of development of the cells is not determined until cleavage is well advanced. Regulation also includes twinning : the formation of two embryos from the cleavage of a single...

regulation

regulation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
288 words

... A mechanism designed to control relations between or the behaviour of specific institutions, groups of institutions, or sections of a society. Self-regulation is common in the professions, such as the law and accountancy. More generally, national, regional, or local government create and enforce regulations. For instance, the British Conservative government in 1989 did this when privatizing water and sewerage services in England and Wales. New private providers not only had to act in accordance with new regulations but also report directly to...

regulation

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A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
153 words

...regulation The system of media-related rules and/or laws that may limit how news organizations conduct themselves, both in relation to issues of ownership and in terms of journalistic behaviour and content. Regulation may provide the public with some means of redress against an organization found to have breached the rules. Regulatory regimes vary between different countries, market systems, and media platforms . In the UK, for example, broadcast journalism is subject to a system of statutory regulation that can result in a fine or even, in an extreme...

regulation

regulation   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
71 words

... (in metabolism) control of the rate of a metabolic system, especially in intact organs and cells, as a result of interaction from components of related systems. A distinction is sometimes made between control and regulation, with the latter described as the maintenance of a variable (e.g. rate or concentration) at a constant value over time, in spite of fluctuations in external conditions. It is therefore linked to homeostasis. —regulatory ...

Regulation

Regulation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,025 words
Illustration(s):
1

....] Regulation. Figure 1. Cost of Federal (U.S.) Environmental Regulation. (After Council of Economic Advisors, 1998; Environmental Protection Agency, 1990; and Office of Management and Budget, 1996.) The aggregate analysis of benefits and costs masks some important information on individual regulations. It appears that many environmental regulations would not pass a standard benefit-cost test, even when the government's own estimates are used. For example, from 1980 to 1995 , more than two-thirds of the federal government's environmental quality regulations...

Regulation

Regulation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... J. A. Hird . “ The Costs and Benefits of Regulation: Review and Synthesis. ” Yale Journal on Regulation 8.1 (1991), 233–278. Hahn, R. W. , and R. N. Stavins . “ Incentive Based Environmental Regulation: A New Era from an Old Idea? ” Ecology Law Quarterly 18 (1991), 1–42. Hazilla, M. , and R. J. Kopp . “ The Social Cost of Environmental Quality Regulations: A General Equilibrium Analysis. ” Journal of Political Economy 98.4 (1990), 853–873. Jorgenson, D. W. , and P. J. Wilcoxen . “ Environmental Regulation and U.S. Economic Growth. ” Rand Journal of...

Regulation

Regulation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Law
Length:
5,497 words

..., 1955. James Q. Wilson , ed., The Politics of Regulations , 1980. Stephen Breyer , Regulation and its Reform , 1982. R. Shep Melnick , Regulation and the Courts: The Case of the Clean Air Act , 1983. Thomas K. McCraw , Prophets of Regulation , 1984. Martha Derthick and Paul Quirk , The Politics of Deregulation , 1985. Donald F. Kettl , The Regulation of American Federalism , 1987. Martin Shapiro , Who Guards the Guardians? Judicial Control of Administration , 1988. Morton Keller , Regulation a New Economy: Public Policy and Economic Change in...

Regulation

Regulation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
8,074 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The modern field of economics did not begin to provide a principled basis for regulation until late in the nineteenth century. Moreover, when it did begin to study regulation, some time passed before the theoretical basis for regulation was clear. Socialists argued that regulation should be so thoroughgoing that private institutions virtually disappeared. Other economists argued that regulation should be used to prevent, among other things, “ruinous competition.” Even though regulation of powerful industries such as electrical utilities, power companies,...

regulation

regulation   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
245 words

... Broadly, the creation of formal standards and codes of conduct for private enterprise and behavior—generally by government . Although state s have always been in the business of controlling and sanctioning aspects of economic activity and forms of behavior, the modern regulatory state emerged as a reaction to the laissez-faire capitalism of the late nineteenth century—especially in the context of the Progressive movement in the United States ( 1880–1920 ). Regulation, in this sense, was intended both to preserve the marketplace against...

REGULATION

REGULATION  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...seemingly demonstrated once and for all the virtues of minimal regulation. Conclusion.  But it would be a serious mistake to pronounce an end to the need for economic regulation, let alone regulation applying to health, safety, and the environment. At the end of the 1990 s, experience with deregulated industries remained brief by historical standards, and economic history has a way of taking unexpected turns. Even so, several general conclusions concerning the history of economic regulation in the United States seem warranted: First, the United States...

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