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reading

Reading ability is tested throughout school years and was commonly recorded in terms of reading age, although it is more usual now to express competence in reading in terms of readability ...

‘reading’

‘reading’   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
30 words

...reading’ Used in the 1960s of one way of understanding an ambiguous expression. E.g. I cooked his goose has two ‘readings’, one when understood literally, the other as an...

reading

reading   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
119 words

...share ; comprehension ; decoding ability ; hegemonic reading ; interpretation ; interpretive codes ; negotiated reading ; oppositional reading ; preferred reading ; receiver skills ; reception studies ; reception theory . ...

reading

reading   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
19 words

... (in molecular biology) the process of one‐way linear decoding of a nucleotide sequence during, e.g., transcription or translation...

reading

reading   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
17 words

... the unidirectional process by which mRNA sequences are decoded (translated) into amino acid sequences (polypeptide...

reading

reading   Quick reference

Annie Woods

A Dictionary of Education (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
408 words

... Reading ability is tested throughout school years and was commonly recorded in terms of reading age, although it is more usual now to express competence in reading in terms of readability levels. The Rose Report ( 2006 ) identifies five competencies in a beginner reader’s ‘toolkit’ which they will need if they are to be able to read: • recognition of letters (and groups of letters such as digraphs) ( st ); • the ability to sound out phonemes ( s ); • the ability to hear and blend phonemes ( str ); • the reading of phonically regular words ( sat...

Reading

Reading   Reference library

David M. Palliser

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
118 words

... . County town of Berkshire, situated where the river Kennet joins the Thames. A small borough by 1086 , it grew partly thanks to Henry I ’s foundation of a major Cluniac abbey ( 1121 ), where he was buried. The abbey dominated the town until the dissolution ( 1539 ), and not until 1542 did Reading become an autonomous borough. From the 14th to the 17th cents. it flourished through cloth-making: it was temporarily the eleventh wealthiest English town under Henry VIII , and Archbishop Laud was the son of a Reading clothier. The town suffered badly in...

Reading

Reading   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
37 words

... City in s central England, at the confluence of the Thames and Kennet rivers; county town of Berkshire . The area was occupied by the Danes in the 9th century. Industries: ironware, engineering, electronics. Pop. ( 2001 )...

Reading

Reading   Reference library

Lynda K. Yankaskas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Reading was important to the earliest British settlers in America , and Americans ever since have participated in the world of print. But they have not done so uniformly; region, race, gender, and class have shaped Americans’ reading experiences. Because direct access to the text of the Bible was a key tenet of the Protestant Reformation, from the earliest decades of settlement the English who came to America to establish a reformed church emphasized literacy and established schools. Reading and writing were considered separate skills and were taught...

Reading

Reading   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,370 words

...by defenders of intensive reading: Leopardi wrote in the fifth chapter of ‘Il Parini, ovvero della gloria’ (in Operette morali , 1827 ) that so many books were now being produced that the scholar had no time to read them all once, let alone reread them. The second shift was the decline in reading aloud and the spread of silent reading. Individual silent reading appears to have been characteristic of educated readers since antiquity (though in certain situations they also read aloud), but among the lower social classes reading aloud remained the norm, not...

Reading

Reading   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of print consumption called “bibliomania”. The familiar image of a young Abe Lincoln reading by firelight reminds us, however, that most early national reading took place between sunrise and sundown. Despite the realization that reading became “a necessity of life” early in American history, millions of Americans found their roads to reading hampered. Free-born girls and women, as well as poor people of both sexes, could face this obstacle. But legislated restrictions on reading, which included provision for harsh reprisal, were visited only on a subpopulation...

Reading

Reading   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
2,142 words

...Reading . The process of extracting meaning from written or printed language: one of the four language skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing ) and one of the two key aspects of literacy (reading and writing). The activity is of two kinds: reading aloud , so that others can hear (and benefit from) what is being read, and silent reading . Reading aloud People who are learning to read often read aloud, in order to relate what they see to the spoken language. Depending on the skill and confidence of the novice reader, this may be accompanied by...

Reading

Reading (Jamaica, UK, USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Reading , Jamaica, UK, USA 1. UK (England): formerly Readingum and Reddinges ‘(Settlement of) Rēad’s People’ from an Old English personal name and - ingas . 2. USA (Pennsylvania): laid out in 1748 on land owned by the sons of William Penn who founded Pennsylvania, they named it after their family home town in England....

Reading

Reading   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
61 words

... County town of Berkshire, situated where the river Kennet joins the Thames. A small borough by 1086 , it grew partly thanks to Henry I 's foundation of a major Cluniac abbey ( 1121 ), where he was buried. From the 14th to the 17th cents. it flourished through cloth‐making: it was temporarily the eleventh wealthiest English town under Henry VIII...

Reading

Reading   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
3,298 words

...to make readers more visible, and their readings more legible, expanding our store of knowledge about the mechanics, the politics, and the poetics of reading and providing a more vital sense of the interaction of books and readers in different times, communities, and media. See also The Canon ; Circulating Libraries ; Literary Theory ; Literature ; and Virginia Woolf . Further Reading Bennett, Andrew , ed. Readers and Reading . London, 1995. An excellent introduction to recent theories of reading, reprinting essays by the most influential...

Reading

Reading   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literary Britain & Ireland (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature, Society and culture
Length:
452 words

...came with her parents from New Alresford to Reading in 1797 . A £20,000 lottery prize won when she was 10 had enabled Mary's father, Dr Mitford , a man of extravagant tastes and improvident ways, to move to a larger house, 39 London Rd (plaque). This, a substantial red‐brick building of the late 18th c., may not have been built for the Mitfords (as has been supposed), though it must have been quite new when they moved in. In 1802 Dr Mitford bought Grazeley Court, a mid‐16th‐c. farmhouse c. 3 m. from Reading, which he pulled down and replaced with a...

Reading

Reading   Reference library

Mark R. M. Towsey

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Although still at an early stage, research into personal reading experiences reveals startling insights into the social impact of reading in the American Enlightenment. For Esther Edwards Burr and Sally Prince of Boston, reading was an intensely enlightening experience. They discussed Richardson’s Pamela together, using fictional characters as conduct models to reflect on their own piety and virtue. They thereby blended evangelical religion with enlightened learning in their reading of one of the best-selling novels of the age, all with the...

reading

reading   Reference library

Oxford Reader’s Companion To Conrad

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,965 words

...of reading ‘professionally’ for his fiction, it is not always possible to specify when or where he made contact with certain works and writers. Although he read avidly throughout his life, he kept no formal diary or commonplace book to indicate specific times and volumes. In an area where comprehensiveness would be an unrealizable ideal, it is at least possible here to indicate the kinds of reading undertaken by Conrad at various stages of his life. Further help is available for interested students in David W. Tutein (comp.), Joseph Conrad’s Reading: An...

Reading

Reading   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Humorous Quotations (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
365 words

... Reading Reading The world may be full of fourth-rate writers but it's also full of fourth-rate readers. Stan Barstow 1928 – English novelist : in Daily Mail 15 August 1989 full of fourth -rate writers full of fourth-rate writers full of fourth-rate readers You couldn't even read the Gettysburg Address. So who cares anyway where Gettysburg lived? Betty Comden 1917 – 2006 and Adolph Green 1915 – 2002 : Singin' in the Rain (1952) where Gettysburg lived where Gettysburg lived on the difficulties of reading the novels of Sir Walter...

Reading

Reading   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
786 words

... Smith 1865 – 1946 American -born man of letters Afterthoughts (1931) ‘Myself’ life is the thing prefer reading Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body. Richard Steele 1672 – 1729 Irish -born essayist and dramatist in The Tatler no. 147 (18 March 1710) reading is to the mind Reading is to the mind exercise is to the body Digressions, incontestably, are the sunshine;—they are the life, the soul of reading;—take them out of this book for instance,—you might as well take the book along with them. Laurence Sterne 1713 – 68 ...

reading

reading   Reference library

Australian Law Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
46 words

...reading ( Bar reader ) The period of formal mentoring ( pupillage ) which an Australian lawyer who wishes to become a member of counsel ( barrister ) undertakes with a mentor. It may include attendance at a Bar Readers’ Course as a prerequisite to signing the roll of counsel....

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