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Overview

readiness potential

A negative event-related potential, across wide areas of both frontal lobes, the motor cortex, and the parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex, gradually increasing for approximately a ...

readiness potential

readiness potential n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... potential n . A negative event-related potential , across wide areas of both frontal lobes , the motor cortex , and the parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex, gradually increasing for approximately a second to two seconds before a person performs a voluntary action at a time of his or her own choosing. The phenomenon, revealed by averaging the EEG traces across a number of voluntary actions, was discovered in 1964 by the German neurologist H(ans) H(elmut) Kornhuber ( 1928–2009 ) and his postgraduate student Lüder Deecke (born 1938 )...

readiness potential

readiness potential  

A negative event-related potential, across wide areas of both frontal lobes, the motor cortex, and the parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex, gradually increasing for approximately a second to two ...
readiness potentials and human volition

readiness potentials and human volition   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,175 words

...of movement onset. This component was given the name readiness potential . Although the spatial resolution of EEG is limited, the principal origin of the readiness potential is thought to be the frontal motor areas, notably the pre‐supplementary motor area. The readiness potential is a *neural correlate of voluntary action . Readiness potential amplitudes increase, and onsets begin earlier before action itself, as the action becomes more effortful, and requires more thought. Moreover, no readiness potential is seen when subjects make actions in response to...

Esther

Esther   Reference library

Carol Meyers and Carol Meyers

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,114 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...notion underlying the book—that the Jews are ultimately inviolable and will somehow survive. ( 7:1–8:17 ) Haman is Overcome and Replaced At the queen's second banquet, when the king is determined to grant her any request, Esther speaks to Ahasuerus in a way that signals her readiness to take advantage of his goodwill. In 7:3 she addresses him for the first time in the second person, saying ‘If I have won your favour’, rather than using the third person, ‘If I have won the king's favour’, as in 5:8 . She is now ready to be direct in her petitions as well...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...become clergy. Political discourse often took the form of legal argument, especially over the prerogative; political engagement often took the form of jury service. Our ancestors were readier to turn to law than we are. This willingness to commence litigation was tempered by a readiness to discontinue a suit if it had satisfied its purpose without coming to trial. Only a small proportion of suits commenced reached a verdict; some were resolved extra‐curially by arbitration or private settlement, but many suits were entirely tactical in character, and were never...

Numbers

Numbers   Reference library

Terence E. Fretheim and Terence E. Fretheim

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
29,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...( 2:1–34 ) The Encampment With the tabernacle centred in the camp, and the Levites camped immediately around it (see num 3), God commands that the tribes be precisely ordered around the perimeter. They are to be ordered as companies (‘hosts’ or ‘armies’), specifying military readiness. Three tribes are to be positioned at each side of the tabernacle, under their distinctive banners; each triad is named for the dominant tribe of the three (seen from the perspective of Israel's later history; cf. Gen 49 ), which is flanked by the other two tribes in each...

1 John, 2 John, and 3 John

1 John, 2 John, and 3 John   Reference library

Judith Lieu, Judith Lieu, Judith Lieu, and Judith Lieu

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,590 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... b ) it might seem that the best expression of love was not to join the schism, but the ‘Johannine’ appeal to the example of Jesus' (‘he’ = ekeinos ) self-sacrifice ( cf. Jn 15:13 ), makes it broader. Yet literal self-sacrifice may not be meant, for the only application is the readiness to share one's ‘goods’ or life (cf. 1 jn 2:16 ) with a fellow believer in need. This is the only hint that differences of class or wealth may have contributed to the schism. The passage has concentrated on love among believers; in 3:17 ‘God's love’ may be the love which...

Genesis

Genesis   Reference library

R. N. Whybray and R. N. Whybray

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
35,219 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the whole of Scripture ( see Gal 3:7–9; Jas 2:23; cf. Heb 11:8–10 ) and has been taken, together with other instances of Abraham's faith, particularly his readiness to leave Haran and his willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac ( ch. 22 ) as the foundation of the doctrine of justification by faith, even though its precise meaning has been disputed. That it is an expression of Abraham's readiness to trust God's promise cannot be doubted. vv. 7–21, like 1–6 , are probably a creation of the author with no older tradition behind it. They are also concerned...

1 Maccabees

1 Maccabees   Reference library

U. Rappaport and U. Rappaport

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
27,583 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...or one of his sources. Yet it stresses some interesting points. v. 71 , ‘come down to the plain’, the Jewish forces were well-adapted to fight in the mountainous area of Judea, but deficient in the plain, where the Seleucid forces could use their phalanx and cavalry. The readiness of Jonathan to descend to the plain is a turning-point in Hasmonean warfare, and shows the considerable development of the Jewish army ( see Shatzman 1991 : 12 ). The ‘power of the cities’, Apollonius' force included, or was mainly composed of, the poleis ' militia. These...

Introduction to the Pauline Corpus

Introduction to the Pauline Corpus   Reference library

Terence L. Donaldson

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
25,035 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...readily imagine circumstances in which even a Jewish family would have been able to share in this largesse. At the same time, however, full weight needs to be given to two additional items of information. First, Paul himself nowhere alludes to Roman citizenship, despite his readiness to boast about other items on his curriculum vitae when it served his purposes. Second, Paul's Roman citizenship could be seen as too neatly consistent with one of Luke's major themes—namely, that Roman officials repeatedly took the Christians' side, or at least demonstrated...

Mark

Mark   Reference library

C. M. Tuckett and C. M. Tuckett

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
44,701 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...occupies more space). But maybe precisely by dampening down some sorts of enthusiasm, in particular by pointing away from the likelihood of any preliminary signs to the coming of the End, and by pointing to the suddenness of the End when it comes, the exhortation to constant readiness and vigilance ( vv. 33–7 ) can be asserted. ( 13:1–4 ) The Occasion of the Discourse The discourse is set in the context of the temple and, at least in part, is presented as an answer to the question about the timing of the destruction of the temple. The disciples' comment about...

1 & 2 Samuel

1 & 2 Samuel   Reference library

Gwilym H. Jones, Gwilym H. Jones, and Gwilym H. Jones

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
44,450 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...from David, and is, therefore, part of God's plan to bring his king-elect to the throne. Although that is the interpretation of events given in the biblical account, there is evidence that David himself had taken several shrewd steps aimed at strengthening his position in readiness for taking the throne. By marrying Abigail he had already obtained a power-base in Hebron ( 1 Sam 25:3 ), and he had also sent gifts to its inhabitants after his defeat of the Amalekites ( 1 Sam 30:31 ). Hebron was certainly the most powerful town in the region, and it was there...

event-related potential

event-related potential  

Another name for an evoked potential, especially an EEG response originating outside the primary sensory areas of the brain, initiated by cognitive activity, associated with the sequential processing ...
Bereitschaftspotential

Bereitschaftspotential  

The original German name for the readiness potential. BP abbrev.
evoked potential

evoked potential  

A type of EEG response, either generated in the primary sensory areas of the brain, initiated by a sensory stimulus, and called a sensory or exogenous potential, or generated elsewhere in the brain, ...
contingent negative variation

contingent negative variation  

A type of event-related potential, believed to indicate attention, consisting of a large negative change in potential voltage across the cerebral cortex, especially in the frontal lobe, that develops ...
Libet's delay

Libet's delay  

A period of approximately half a second between a person's skin being touched and the resulting conscious experience of being touched, although the brain receives the signal and responds to the ...
homunculus

homunculus  

A tiny man, especially the completed homunculus depicting the surface of the human body, with each part drawn in proportion to its representation in the somatosensory cortex (see illustration), or ...
consciousness

consciousness  

The state of being conscious (1, 2); the normal mental condition of the waking state of humans, characterized by the experience of perceptions, thoughts, feelings, awareness of the external world, ...
decision-making

decision-making  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The process of acting upon the best information available in order to determine the most appropriate course of action.

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