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ram ventilation

The production of respiratory flow in some fish in which the mouth is opened during swimming, such that water flows through the mouth and across the gills. In fish which have a reduced or ...

ram ventilation

ram ventilation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
54 words

... ventilation The production of respiratory flow in some fish in which the mouth is opened during swimming, such that water flows through the mouth and across the gills. In fish which have a reduced or no ability to pump water buccally, such as mackerel and sharks, perpetual swimming is required to maintain ventilation...

ram ventilation

ram ventilation  

The production of respiratory flow in some fish in which the mouth is opened during swimming, such that water flows through the mouth and across the gills. In fish which have a reduced or no ability ...
air scoop

air scoop   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Mechanical Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...air scoop 1. A cowl or duct projecting from an aircraft or motor vehicle and facing the airflow that allows ambient air direct access at increased pressure ( ram effect ) to the engine air intake or to create an interior flow, for example for ventilation. 2. A device inserted into a water pipeline that reduces the water speed so that any air in the flow rises above the water surface and can be...

siege engines

siege engines   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
943 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a besieged castle or other fortification . There were a number of different types, the most prominent and certainly the simplest to construct being the battering ram. In its primitive form this was little more than a large beam or tree trunk that could be propelled continually against a wall or gate until a breach was made. It was frequently capped with metal (sometimes a symbolic ram's head) to strengthen the striking surface, and the survival of those operating it was greatly enhanced when it was covered by an armoured roof structure, from which it...

Sutherland, Graham Vivian

Sutherland, Graham Vivian (24 August 1903)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of British Graphic Artists and Illustrators

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...GBP 4,600 London, 23 March 1983 : Thorn Head ( 1947 , oil on canvas, 44 × 31 ins/112 × 79 cm) GBP 18,000 London, 29 June 1983 : Fine Vine Pergola ( 1947 , tempera and gouache, 10 × 12¾ ins/25.5 × 32.5 cm) GBP 7,000 London, 28 March 1984 : Devastation - East End Factory Ventilation Shaft (pen and Indian ink/pencil, watercolour and charcoal, 26¼ × 18¼ ins/66.4 × 46.1 cm) GBP 8,000 London, 27 March 1985 : Rock Face ( 1978 , pen/watercolour and chalk, 11 × 17 ins/27 × 43 cm) GBP 4,200 Milan, 19 June 1986 : Composition ( 1972 , oil on canvas, 39¼ × 32...

Warships

Warships   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
15,668 words
Illustration(s):
5

...equipped with a projection on the waterline, which was cased in bronze. The prow was thus converted into a battering ram, thrust forward by oarsmen to destroy or damage the hull of an enemy warship. Most warships were equipped with a ram, as we can see in pictures on Greek vases dating from 850 b.c.e. to 700 b.c.e. and in the reliefs from the palace of the Assyrian king Sennacherib (r. 704–681 b.c.e. ) at Nineveh . The use of the ram to hit the vulnerable parts of the enemy ship, the stern and the sides, increasingly required skill and training for...

vernacular architecture

vernacular architecture   Reference library

Paul Oliver

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
10,858 words
Illustration(s):
1

...deep pit is excavated to a depth equivalent to a 3-storey house; then caves are excavated into the walls of the pit, and deep under the surrounding land. After excavation, they are often closed in with a frontal wall, which will have both a door and a high-level light and air ventilation grid. Scores of such shafts may be excavated, but the land above can still be used for cultivation, or for pasturing animals. The method is so practical and economical with natural resources that in China ‘constructed caves’ are built almost in imitation of rows of cave...

Military architecture and fortification

Military architecture and fortification   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
10,258 words
Illustration(s):
4

...) dynasties. Rubble and ashlar masonry was gradually introduced into the predominantly mud-brick and rammed earth walls, and such new forms as round towers and barbicans were brought in from Christian Spain. Typical Almohad enceintes, such as those at Fez , Rabat and Marrakesh , consisted of curtains and irregular rectilinear towers, surmounted by a chemin-de-ronde , with pyramidal crenellated parapets. Both curtains and towers were made of rammed earth, to which brick was often added; cut stone was reserved for the gates to cities and fortresses...

Concrete

Concrete   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
5,934 words

...corrosion of the reinforcement rods. The prime objective of preventive conservation is therefore the exclusion of moisture. Depending on the specific situation, this can be achieved in a variety of ways, for example by ensuring adequate drainage of flat roofs and adequate ventilation or by the use of protective coatings that keep the concrete dry yet allow it to breathe. If corrosion has already occurred, major interventionist repairs are necessary. The affected concrete has to be removed, the reinforcement rods cleaned or replaced and then the concrete...

Vernacular architecture

Vernacular architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
17,884 words
Illustration(s):
10

...the room had features that became more common from the 13th century: a dūrqā῾a (a lower area where one removed one's shoes) with a marble basin for a fountain, sometimes in combination with a shādirwān (a decorated flagstone over which water rippled) and a wind catcher or ventilation shaft above, all contributing to the coolness of the interior. The flat roofs of the houses were also used for drying clothes or fruit, or even for light wooden superstructures that could be let as individual dwellings. It has not been possible to carry out excavations at...

Urbanization

Urbanization   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,129 words

...During the hard times of the 1930s known as the Great Depression, racist tenement landlords in northern cities became even more reluctant to make repairs, so ghetto housing deteriorated and the occupants suffered from inadequate heating and toilet facilities, from poor ventilation in overcrowded kitchenettes—rented rooms made by cutting up apartments—and from the problems that roomers presented to family life. Disease, especially tuberculosis, and vermin-infested tenements caused African American adults, children, and infants to have appreciably higher...

Snakes

Snakes   Reference library

The New Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
18,296 words
Illustration(s):
30

...In the hospital, the most critical decision is whether to give antivenom, made from the plasma of a horse or sheep that has been immunized with venom. Being a foreign protein, antivenom can cause early anaphylactic or late immune complex (serum sickness) reactions. Artificial ventilation and renal dialysis may also be required to save the patient's life. David A. Warrell Snake Families Phylogenetic tree showing the relationships among the 18 families of snakes. They fall into two broad groups, the Scolecophidia and Alethinophidia. The latter group (the...

Textiles

Textiles   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
32,331 words
Illustration(s):
12

...(in Gujarat) for tie-dyed cloth; it was also used for lining garments, and sometimes for embroidered bed-covers and furnishings for Europeans in India. Mixed fabrics had the practical advantage of being cool and comfortable to wear in a hot climate, the cotton content giving ventilation and absorbency. However, increased imports of glossy satinettes from China in the late 19th century led to a decline in production. (c) Wool. Traditional wool textiles were woven in the colder areas of the northwest, especially Himalayan regions such as Kashmir, Kulu, Kangra,...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
93,988 words
Illustration(s):
35

...were ingenious structures with wooden floors supported by transverse arches, like those in water cisterns on Delos (3rd century bc onwards). The storehouses on the acropolis at Pergamon (later 3rd century bc to early 2nd) had cellular stone basements to provide cross-ventilation. Domestic architecture . Most Hellenistic houses followed Classical models but were larger and better built. Vitruvius’ ‘Rhodian peristyle’, with higher columns on one side (VI.vii.3), and his four types of main rooms (Tetrastyle, Corinthian, Kyzikene and Egyptian; On...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
117,015 words
Illustration(s):
77

...itself is well preserved, but has been neither planned nor described in detail. The well at Bust comprises a vaulted structure above ground and a complex of vaulted chambers that descends 20 m underground on four levels, with ingenious provision for natural lighting and ventilation. The largest chamber on the second level was distinguished by carved stucco decoration; it might have served as a setting for social gatherings. (b) Materials, forms and decoration. Most buildings of the period were built of baked brick, but mud-brick was also used for major...

Architecture

Architecture (The Americas and Oceania: Assessing Sustainability)   Reference library

William David GALLOWAY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,241 words

...which promises to free buildings from carbon dioxide emissions entirely. These are all based on resource efficiency and make use of a similar group of technologies and strategies, including passive heating and cooling, efficient mechanical systems, day-lighting and natural ventilation, solar orientation, rainwater harvesting, graywater recycling (i.e., reusing wastewater generated from such activities as dishwashing and bathing), waste reduction, green roofs, indoor air quality, and the use of sustainable materials. The technologies, when coupled with...

Design and Architecture

Design and Architecture   Reference library

Sim VAN DER RYN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
6,488 words

...and for its particular components. Replacing movable furnishings does not seriously interrupt a building’s use, while replacing an HVAC system does. Integrating mechanical systems with natural systems—such as combining daylight with artificial lighting or natural ventilation with mechanical ventilation—may be one way to design redundancy into our buildings, extending useful life and reducing metabolism. ( Redundancy here refers to the mechanical systems used on a backup basis; the word has a positive connotation in this definition.) Decarbonizing and Demater...

Psychosocial Measurement Issues in Sport and Exercise Settings

Psychosocial Measurement Issues in Sport and Exercise Settings   Reference library

Gershon Tenenbaum and Edson Filho

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,421 words
Illustration(s):
5

...fatigue are embedded with the term exertion. Thus, all the scales were single-item scales that were shown to the exerciser during a graded exercise regimen. The rating of exertion corresponded to physiological changes such as heart rate, breathing, lactic acid accumulation, ventilation rate, and oxygen consumption. Prior to administering the scales, subjects would undergo familiarization and anchoring procedures to assure reliable exertive ratings. In recent years, perceived exertion has been viewed as one dimension within the construct of effort sensation (...

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