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railway library

Lending libraries on railway premises established primarily for railway employees, similar to mechanics’ institute libraries; also, special series of yellowback books for sale to rail ...

railway library

railway library   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
57 words

... library Lending libraries on railway premises established primarily for railway employees, similar to *mechanics’ institute libraries ; also, special series of *yellowback books for sale to rail travellers: *Routledge were leading publishers and W. H. *Smith leading vendors of such series. Erin Louttit D. Mackarill , ‘ Railway Libraries ’, Local History Magazine , 97 (July–Aug. 2004),...

Railway Library

Railway Library   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
198 words

... Library First and most successful of the cheap reprint series of *railway books aimed at travellers on the rapidly expanding Victorian network. Coinciding with the opening of W. H. *Smith ’s first bookstall at Euston Station, *Routledge ’s library ran from 1848 and included just under 1,300 titles when it ended in 1899 . Soon most volumes appeared in the familiar *yellowback format, though bestsellers were later reissued even more cheaply in paper wrappers. The large majority were novels by well-known authors, so that in 1850 Routledge began...

railway library

railway library  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Lending libraries on railway premises established primarily for railway employees, similar to mechanics’ institute libraries; also, special series of yellowback books for sale to rail travellers: ...
Welsh Local and Family History

Welsh Local and Family History   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,123 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the Society. The contraction of the coal industry had led to the closure and dispersal of many miners’ institute libraries, but since 1973 the South Wales Miners’ Library, located in Swansea, has collected a wide range of material, including books from miners’ institute libraries, pamphlets and printed ephemera, photographs , tapes, and miners’ banners. This library, housing part of the South Wales Coalfield Collection, is the main library service for the Department of Adult Continuing Education, University of Swansea. The earliest scholarly society in...

Consumerism

Consumerism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,809 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...libraries such as William Lane 's *Minerva Press ; prints or ornaments to put on the wall or the mantelshelf; and all manner of bric-à-brac and decorations. Shop-bought toys, games, and jigsaw puzzles for children had become common. Not least, diet was more varied, with a greater range of fruit and vegetables. People owned more changes of clothes, particularly with the growing availability of cheaper calicoes and cottons. Efficient oil-lamps dispelled the age-old stygian gloom; gas lighting arrived with the new century, soon to be followed by railway...

Labour History

Labour History   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,259 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., Ramsay MacDonald ( 1977 ), should be consulted. MacDonald was connected with Leicester (see Bill Lancaster's fine local study Radicalism, Cooperation and Socialism: Leicester Working‐Class Politics, 1860–1906 (1987). ILP members at Doncaster in the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants played a key role in the formation of the Labour Party. This story, and other important episodes involving the union in labour politics, can be followed in detail in Philip Bagwell, The Railwaymen: The History of the National Union of Railwaymen ( 1963 ), which is...

Education

Education   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,282 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for girls. The Churches were active in promoting both day proprietary schools and proprietary boarding schools. Standards were improved immeasurably by such headmasters as Thomas Arnold of Rugby ( 1828–42 ), with an emphasis on ‘muscular Christianity’. The coming of the railways enabled the better ‘public schools’ to attract boarders over long distances. Much information on the nine big public schools is contained in the report of the Clarendon Commission, which met from 1861 to 1864 , and which published its findings as a parliamentary paper ....

45 The History of the Book in New Zealand

45 The History of the Book in New Zealand   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,017 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Library Service set up by G. T. Alley in 1938 . The service continued until 1988 , when it was replaced briefly by a mail service, until overtaken by the Internet. In 1942 , the government formed the School Library Service, a programme that amalgamated with the Country Library Service to form the first National Library Service in 1945 . Meanwhile, copyright *legal deposit requirements fed continual growth of the General Assembly Library in Wellington, which, together with the National Library Service, formed the basis of the National Library...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...other cases so slowly that the crusade for cheap literature continued to flourish. The railway boom of the 1840s and 1850s transformed the distribution of books and periodicals and affected patterns of publishing and of reading. W. H. *Smith and other booksellers profited from the railway novel that could be purchased at a station stall and that could be consumed comfortably on a train journey. The leading publisher here was *Routledge . Their shilling *Railway Library editions, known as *yellow back s, were bound in coloured paper and furnished with...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...Music publishing increased by 250 per cent between 1871 and 1900 . Growth was further fostered by improvements in communications (railways, telegraph, telephone) and the emergence of railway bookstalls, department stores, and mail order. Series for travellers began to appear in the 1850s (such as *Brockhaus ’s Reisebibliothek für Eisenbahn und Schiffe , 1856–61 ) on the model of George *Routledge ’s *Railway Library ( 1848 ). The 19 th century was the heyday of serial novels, marketed through itinerant booksellers. Late in the century, there were...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...libraries. One private collector, P. F. Suhm in Copenhagen, famously opened his library to the public ( 1778 ). The universities, particularly *Uppsala and Copenhagen, had considerable collections. The two royal libraries expanded from the mid-17 th century, primarily by incorporating private collections and war booty; and bookbinders were attached to the courts. *Legal deposit was formally introduced in Sweden in 1661 and Denmark in 1697 . Public access to the National Library of *Sweden in Stockholm was granted from 1713 ; the Royal Library in...

14 Printed Ephemera

14 Printed Ephemera   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,034 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Hendon at Colindale in North London was purchased; in 1910 it became the base for what is now the British Library Newspaper Library. It was a symbolic as well as an actual separation. On one hand, the split tended to emphasize the division between print in serial and book form. The two could not easily cohabit in a library setting, and the division lent credence to the idea of non-book ephemera. On the other hand, the creation of the Newspaper Library gave a new emphasis to the whole range of serial output as part of the national collection. Over time, the...

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...to Gosizdat were established in East Ukraine and Belarus, now designated ‘Soviet Socialist Republics’. Moves were made to build up the library network. All significant private book collections were nationalized, benefiting especially the Petrograd Public Library (later National Library of *Russia ) and the Library of the Rumiantsev Museum (later the *Russian State Library ). Both had been designated legal deposit libraries in May 1917 . The Chief Administration on Publishing Affairs (Glavlit) was established in 1922 and operated as the main organ of...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...was created within the education ministry (with Cain at its head). Since school libraries were not part of its responsibilities, it focused instead on the creation of a network of lending libraries called Bibliothèques centrales (renamed ‘départementales’ in 1983 ), which helped to reduce the cultural gap not only between Paris and the provinces but also between large cities and rural areas. School libraries began to receive serious attention in the 1970s . University libraries, however, remained (and still are) the poor relations of the French educational...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,120 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...libraries were an important market for wholesalers and publishers. Starting in the 1880s , the patchwork of subscription, *circulating , parish, and mechanics’ institutes libraries gave way to tax-supported *public libraries . Ontario set the pattern with enabling legislation in 1882 . Voted into existence by a majority of citizens, the *Toronto Public Library opened in 1884 . By 1901 , Ontario had 132 free public library boards; by 1921 , there were 111 new libraries built with support from the Carnegie Foundation. Thirteen *Carnegie libraries in...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...his first railway bookstall in the depression of 1848 . He tempted middle-class readers with the earliest of many *railway libraries ; *Routledge , *Colburn , and other publishers followed. The success of Smith and his competitors was fuelled by a 19 th -century vogue for publishers’ series or ‘libraries’, which supplied a market for self-education, for book collecting, and, in the latter half of the century, for schoolbooks. The success of a format could also bring its own difficulties, however. When J. M. *Dent launched *Everyman’s Library in 1904 ,...

19 The Electronic Book

19 The Electronic Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,019 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...variations on page layout, hypertext, and parsing programs, the widespread international adoption of TEI in the world of libraries, archives, and publishing continued to assure its dominance. 7 Models and aesthetics E-books are extremely adaptable and functional; New and old technology: the iLiad Reader marketed by Libresco. Just as the characteristics of *newspapers changed people’s reading habits and the railway revolutionized the distribution of print, so e-books may change how, what, when, and where material is read. Courtesy of...

21 The History of the Book in Ireland

21 The History of the Book in Ireland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,994 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...improvements in communications, particularly the spread of railways, enabled the Irish rural market to be centrally supplied. In Dublin, the combined effect of the Famine and a commercial crisis in 1847 resulted in a series of bankruptcies of printers and publishers. 2 1850 to the early 21 st century One publisher to survive the profound cultural, social, and economic upheaval of mid-19 th century Ireland was James *Duffy , who published the immensely popular and successful ‘Library of Ireland’ in Dublin between 1845 and 1847 . This series of...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...’ (Orsini, ‘Pandits’, 120). 6 Print and the nation By the turn of the century, print had spread to almost every part of the Indian subcontinent, with an elaborate network of production and distribution in place. The rise of public libraries and reading rooms created new spaces for the consumption of print. The Calcutta Public Library (established in 1836 ) showed the way, by involving its subscribers, both Indian and British, in decision-making, especially with regard to acquisitions. The gradual increase in *literacy and the formation of new interpretative...

railway book

railway book  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A mid-19th century publishing innovation meeting the new reading needs of both rail commuters from expanded suburbs and business or pleasure rail travellers. Railway station shops were initially run ...

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