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Overview

racism

Subject: Law

The inability or refusal to recognize the rights, needs, dignity, or value of people of particular races or geographical origins. More widely, the devaluation of various traits of ...

racism

racism   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... ; ✳racialism . Both terms date from the early 20th century— ✳racialism ( 1907 ) is more than two decades older than racism ( 1933 )—yet both terms remained relatively obscure until the late 1950s. ✳Racialism stayed obscure, but racism shot to ever greater levels of prominence beginning in the 1960s—first in AmE and later in BrE. Racism = (1) unfair treatment of people on grounds of their ethnicity or race, or (2) the belief that some races of people are inherently superior to...

racism

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A Dictionary of Cultural Anthropology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
90 words

...racism Social practices, beliefs, and representations that uphold and enforce racial categories and inequality. Racism is expressed through prejudice , discrimination , repression, and concrete social actions ranging from violence and killing to unequal access to housing, occupations, education, health care, and other social goods. Anthropologists often argue that racism is one of the key means through which race as a concept is actualized in social settings and in racially stratified societies. Compare scientific racism and racial...

racism

racism n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n . A belief that races ( 2 ) are inherently different from one another and that people's characteristics and capacities are determined largely by race, usually accompanied by a belief in the intrinsic superiority of one particular race over another or others. Also called racialism , but distinguished from it in careful usage. See also authoritarianism , modern racism , stereotype . Compare ableism , ageism , ethnocentrism , fattism , heterosexism , sexism , speciesism . racist n . 1. A person with opinions or attitudes that are...

racism

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A Dictionary of Human Resource Management (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
119 words

...racism is the ideology and practice of discriminating against someone on the basis of their race or their ethnic group. Typically, it is based on categorizing people according to physical attributes such as skin colour, and ascribing negative characteristics to some categories. These characteristics are then used to justify the unequal treatment of people who fall into particular racial categories. Racism is normally perpetrated by a dominant racial/ethnic group over a racial/ethnic minority group. Some commentators suggest that racism can also occur between...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
62 words

... Doctrine advocating the superiority of one human race . Racism has been the policy of certain regimes that, as a result, sanctioned slavery and discriminatory practices, such as anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany and apartheid in South Africa. In 1967 , UNESCO defined racism as ‘anti-social beliefs and acts which are based on a fallacy that discriminatory inter-group relations are justifiable on biological...

racism

racism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
175 words

... . Although the roots of theoretical racism can be traced back at least to the fifteenth century, the term did not come to prominence until the 1930s when it was used to describe the pseudo-scientific theory that ‘race’, as a decisive biological determinant, established a hierarchy among different ethnic groups. Racist theories were largely developed after the fact to justify practical racism, which can exist independently of them. Polygenesis, the attempt to explain the differences among kinds by positing diverse origins, provided a basis for maintaining...

racism

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A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
255 words

... A set of social relations that is used to discriminate against people based on their assumed race . Given their political power, wealth, and historical precedent, racism is usually expressed as discrimination by white populations against ‘non-white’ people. Racism can be both overt, explicitly expressed through discourse and law, and materially through forms of violence, and covert in nature, working in more implicit and subtle ways to disenfranchise people through the restriction of life opportunities. Racism was initially based on the notion that there...

racism

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A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...racism Attitudes and behaviors based on a belief that people in a particular group or class are inherently different from and inferior to others and that it is therefore justifiable to discriminate against them; to stigmatize, persecute, and victimize them; to deny them access to services available to others; and, at the most extreme, to torture and murder them. Racism may be overt and individual or covert and institutionalized. Racism always has adverse health consequences for the group that is stigmatized and discriminated against, even in the absence of...

racism

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A Dictionary of Media and Communication (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
136 words

... Prejudiced attitudes, ideologies, practices, or policies based on an irrational belief in the inherent inferiority of those seen as belonging to other races ( see also ethnocentrism ; Eurocentrism ). It involves ‘othering’ in terms of specific negative stereotypes of racial difference, as well as the exnomination of the definers. It reflects ignorance, dislike, hatred, or fear, and serves to privilege one group while justifying the exclusion, subordination, or exploitation of others. Racism is not a monolithic and unchanging phenomenon and some...

racism

racism   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
164 words

... A form of prejudice based on the belief that certain racial groups are inherently superior to others. Racist discourse generally attributes such characteristics to biology, although cultural and historical arguments may also come into play. Such prejudice has in many cases grounded broader social and legal forms of discrimination, such as slavery and, later, segregation in the United States. Racism has been the subject of extensive research in the social sciences, from studies of its impact on the psychology of its victims to quantitative research on the...

racism

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A Dictionary of Gangs

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Law
Length:
133 words

... The combination of prejudice and power. The ability of the beliefs of one race to impact shape, limit, and/or control the behaviours, options, and/or outcomes of another race. Racism can be overt, such as violence, or it can be institutional, such as discriminatory hiring and promotion practices. Racism is a central component of critical race theory . Following this perspective, racism is a major reason for housing and economic restrictions and the lack of employment and educational opportunities, particularly among African Americans and...

Racism

Racism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
2,312 words

...frameworks of western culture. Isolating and alienating people, racism produces much of the societal violence directed at individuals and groups. At the end of the twentieth century the persistence of racism has created what Andrew Hacker calls Two Nations: Black and White, Separate, Hostile, Unequal ( 1992 ). Derrick Bell asserts, in Faces at the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism ( 1992 ), that “racism is an integral, permanent, and indestructible component of this society.” Racism affects all Americans, but some groups and individuals suffer...

racism

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A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
359 words

... The process whereby people's social relations are determined by the attribution of particular biological and/or cultural characteristics, with the consequence that social groups are differentiated according to those attributions. Racism generates claims that such differentiated groups have a natural or unchanging character, and perpetuates discriminatory and prejudiced beliefs and practices. Ben Carrington and Ian McDonald , in their edited volume ‘Race’, Sport and British Society ( 2001 ), state that the ‘discourse of racism’ has shifted since the...

racism

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A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
127 words

...racism A belief in the superiority of one race , prejudicial attitudes towards people of other races, and/or actions that have the effect of disadvantaging one or more racial groups. Much of the mainstream media has long been accused of racism and stereotyping in the way that people from some ethnic minority communities are—or are not—covered; however, much journalism has also challenged and exposed racist attitudes and policies. Material likely to encourage hatred on racial grounds is contrary to most journalists’ codes of conduct , and the most blatant...

Racism

Racism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,215 words

...the State of Virginia ( 1785 ), Jefferson revealed racist notions, portraying African Americans as subhuman while idealizing Indians. White racism so pervaded antebellum America that the free black leader Martin Delany ( 1812–1885 ) argued only that when blacks gained political power would it diminish. Southern religious leaders offered biblical defenses of racism and by the 1850s, an elaborate pseudo-scientific racism, based largely on measurements of cranial capacity, was devised by the so-called American School of Anthropology, which included the...

Racism

Racism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Black British History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,146 words

... . Racism is a long‐standing feature of human societies, but it has taken many different forms and been interpreted in many different ways in the course of history. 1. Theorizing race and racism 2. Early British racisms 3. Colonialism and domestic racism in the colonial era 4. Racializing non‐whiteness 5. The situation at the start of the 21st century 1. Theorizing race and racism Theories of the origins and nature of ‘race’ and racism abound, as do theories of how racism may be remedied. An inherent difficulty lies within the very definitions of...

racism

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The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
85 words

... The inability or refusal to recognize the rights, needs, dignity, or value of people of particular races or geographical origins. More widely, the devaluation of various traits of character or intelligence as ‘typical’ of particular peoples. The category of race may itself be challenged, as implying an inference from trivial superficial differences of appearance to allegedly significant underlying differences of nature; increasingly evolutionary evidence suggests that the dispersal of one original people into different geographical locations is a...

racism

racism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
334 words

...racism During the 1970s the charge of racism began to be levelled against a number of well-known children’s books, chiefly (in Britain) by members of such radical groups as the Children’s Rights Workshop and the Writers and Readers Publishing Cooperative. The latter group published Racism and Sexism in Children’s Books, edited by Judith Stinton ( 1976 , revised and enlarged, 1979 ), which contained attacks on the portrayal of black characters in such books as Uncle Tom’s Cabin , The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Little Black Sambo , the Doctor...

Racism

Racism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,025 words

... Prior to the 1830s, in both the North and the South, the inferiority of black Americans was generally accepted as a given, a tacit assumption that was not strongly challenged. However, the development of immediate abolitionism after 1830 compelled the South in particular to articulate its racism more than it had done before. Rather than presuming white superiority, southerners had to prove it, and they had to defend the political and social status quo that supported the extremely institutionalized racism of slavery. As abolitionism escalated, racism...

Racism

Racism   Reference library

Robert Melchior FIGUEROA

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
1,249 words

...to which environmental racism pervades South African resource and development practices. Despite the differing nation-specific notions of race between the United States and South Africa, the phenomenon of environmental racism can be seen in resource management, the unsustainable petrochemical industry, and the failure of proper environmental protection for marginalized ethnic groups, even after explicit rights to environmental justice were written into the post-Apartheid constitution. Ongoing legacies of institutional patterns of racism and habitual...

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