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Overview

public choice

1 Broadly, any study of politics using the methods and characteristic assumptions of economics. The methods are deductive and rely heavily on differential calculus because ...

public choice

public choice   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
103 words

...public choice 1. An approach to the analysis of economic policy that emphasizes the motivations of bureaucrats and politicians. The public choice literature stresses that the ability of the government to improve on the market outcome has to be proved rather than asserted. This follows from the assumption that bureaucrats and politicians are economically rational and enter government for their own advantage. The pursuit of self-advantage is constrained imperfectly by the electoral mechanism. Only when the objectives of those in government are consistent with...

public choice

public choice   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
514 words

... choice 1. Broadly, any study of politics using the methods and characteristic assumptions of economics. The methods are deductive and rely heavily on differential calculus because they depend on the marginal principle. The marginal principle stresses that changes in one quantity (say, propensity to vote for the incumbent party) depend on changes in another (say, the level of unemployment last month). A fully‐fledged public choice application to politics would form a theoretical model, deduce its consequences, and then test them on observed behaviour. Most...

public-choice theory

public-choice theory  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...competing interest groups, reelection, and so on. While most work in public-choice theory has been directed toward explaining political behavior, some researchers have sought to apply it to improving systems of governance, based on positive information about how procedures and policies actually function. This normative component is usually referred to as the theory of constitutions . See also rational-choice theory...

public choice theory

public choice theory   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... choice theory The study of politics, policy-making, and policy implementation from an economic perspective that has been deeply influential in the critique of public services through its questioning of the values and practices of service . Instead, it assumes that everyone involved in public services, such as social workers, is pursuing self-interest and is concerned with maximizing her/his own return, and that because distribution systems are not governed by price, they are inherently inefficient. It argues that this results in policies and practices...

Public Choice Theory

Public Choice Theory   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,083 words

...(or, in the terminology of economists, utility or satisfaction). With this as the point of departure the public choice analyst proceeds to employ the rather formidable analytical tools of modern economics in search of truths about public or collective choice. Thus, the analyst might wish to explain voter choices; the formation of coalitions; the electoral strategies of parties; the choice of fiscal and monetary policies; the pursuit of market advantages by interest groups; the growth of government; budgetary behavior of bureaucrats; and so on. Now a...

Public Sector Agency Choice of Policy Instruments Across Governance Systems

Public Sector Agency Choice of Policy Instruments Across Governance Systems   Reference library

Beverly Cigler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards Governance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...uses a complex systems approach that explores cultural, social, and historical detail within the traditional rational choice emphasis in the comparative frameworks. Such advances allow for exploration of the diverse actors and agencies that span the public, private, and non-profit sectors, as well as civil society. Policy choices, in addition, are best understood from international and comparative perspectives. Policy instrument choices are best examined across multiple levels of governance, both horizontal and vertical. Intergovernmental and intersector...

public choice

public choice  

Reference type:
Overview Page
1 Broadly, any study of politics using the methods and characteristic assumptions of economics. The methods are deductive and rely heavily on differential calculus because they depend on the marginal ...
Democracy and Shura

Democracy and Shura   Reference library

Sadek J. Sulaiman

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in Arab public life, for the relationship between democracy and shura touches the essence of our national existence ( qawmiyya ). It determines the quality of our civic experience and the world we would like to leave for future generations. For this reason the subject merits our full attention. Democracy Democracy literally means rule by the people, and this distinguishes it from any pattern of governance not deriving its legitimacy from the people's choice. Americans...

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World   Reference library

Heba Raouf Ezzat

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,961 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the structures of power on all levels. Innovation, rather than standardization, in thinking and acting, is a con-dition for integrating more women in the public sphere and helping them to feel safe and secure, supported by their social capital and networks. The tragic irony of formal structural notions of politics that dominate the current paradigm is that it takes away women's freedom of choice in order to secure the implementation of ready-made solutions, another result of the mind set of the centrality of the state as a conceptual variable in the...

Shura and Democracy

Shura and Democracy   Reference library

Osman Fathi

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,010 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...or not. Elections require several candidates to choose from, whether such a choice is for the parliament or for a board of a union, association or other organization. Some Muslims argue against such a procedure citing a Prophet's tradition that disqualifies anyone who asks for a public position (as reported by Ibn Hanbal, al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, and al-Nasa‘i). According to commentators and jurists, this can be interpreted as a warning against asking for a public position for personal benefit, without considering the responsibilities of the...

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism   Reference library

Marcus Walsh

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,054 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...range of theoretical writing, including E. D. Hirsch ’s Validity in Interpretation ( 1967 ). Editors, Tanselle suggests, ‘are in general agreement that their goal is to discover exactly what an author wrote and to determine what form of his work he wished the public to have’. Editorial choice depends upon a critical determination of intended authorial wording and meaning: ‘of the meanings which the editor sees in the work, he will determine, through a weighing of all the information at his command, the one which he regards as most likely to have been the...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,654 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...choice from the 16th and 17th centuries onwards: choice of housing (often in terms of rebuilding), decoration, furnishing, and utensils; choice of clothing or (with the spread of literacy) of reading matter with the ideas which might thus be publicized (see Margaret Spufford , The Great Reclothing of Rural England (1984) and Small Books and Pleasant Histories ( 1981 ). (It has recently been noted, however, that the 18th century trend towards the acquisition of new clothes in lighter fabrics led to an addition to popular conventions: the public...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...artists, and by reproducing these pictures as engravings [ see *prints, 22 ]. Such ventures, however, were risky. They depended on the notoriously fluctuating state of the individual artist's appeal. The choice of subject painted was also vital, needing to be impressive and appealing enough to draw thousands of people away from the major public exhibitions. Finally, preparing for a one-man show was time-consuming and costly; failure might mean heavy debts and long-term damage to an artistic reputation. Even an artist as successful as Joseph *Wright of...

Humanity and Islam

Humanity and Islam   Reference library

‘Ali Shari‘ati

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,585 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...take human choice and will into account, then humankind is not responsible. And when humans have no responsibility, they are not insan . Historicism . This school believes that humankind is the product of history. The Iranian, Islamic, and Shi‘ite histories have molded my personality. “If I were living during the French revolution, instead of my actual position in history, I would have had a different language, sentiment, and characteristics.” So, human characteristics fall in the hands of a will that is called Historicism. How do I make a choice then? Any...

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The names ‘endowed’, ‘free’, and ‘public’ still remained in common use during this period, and still occasionally overlapped. Over the centuries, however, they had taken on different shades of meaning, with ‘public schools’ coming to connote an élite subtype which still made gestures towards retaining a charitable function on behalf of poorer scholars but increasingly recruited its clientele from fee-paying boys of higher rank and from far and wide. The endowment statutes of Winchester and Eton, the oldest schools in this choice band, had provided loopholes...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for a conservative ideology, and a celebration of the distinctive character of the English inheritance which came to exert a powerful influence over this and subsequent decades. Burke characterized the choice in stark terms: either to accept the status quo, or to jeopardize the Englishman's liberties, his culture, and his civilization. If few saw the choice so bleakly when the Reflections were published in November 1790 , many were persuaded to do so by the second half of the decade. One factor in their thinking was, without doubt, the way that events in...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...therefore required a proper education. A daughter's having a marriage choice made ‘the tension between love and filial obedience’ a preoccupation of women's writing. Central to many of the novels is the struggle between daughters and tyrannous fathers, as well as fantasized harmony and obedience to sympathetic ones. The desire to soften and improve relations between parents and children and wives and husbands are related themes. Sentimental fiction elaborated women's claim to enjoy public pleasures with men, without threat of violent assault. Above all,...

The Merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,171 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...in an aside of his hatred of him, but when Antonio arrives, Shylock, though reminding him of many public insults, speaks affably in defence of usury, and despite Antonio’s renewed profession of enmity offers to lend the 3,000 ducats at no interest, insisting only—professedly in fun—that Antonio should sign a bond specifying that if he defaults Shylock will be entitled to a pound of his flesh. 2.1 The Prince of Morocco agrees to vow, before making his choice of casket, that if he chooses wrongly he will remain unmarried forever. 2.2 Lancelot Gobbo debates the...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...*Paganini , who invented the idea and perfected the practice of demonic Romantic virtuosity, was also thought by some to be vulgar in repertoire and undiscriminating in choice of venue. He played, for example, at the London Tavern in the City, which Moscheles ‘thought unworthy of a great artist; but it was all one to him, for he makes money there’. Outside London, less music was made in public and it was still predominantly amateur, with occasional ‘strengthening’ by local professionals (or, on rare occasions such as *music festivals , from further afield)....

Islam and the Challenge of the Modern World

Islam and the Challenge of the Modern World   Reference library

Shabbir Akhtar

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,182 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...limited by all the tortured choices of an age of uncertainty, an attempt to recognize and fulfill obligations to oneself, the family, the nation and the global society of mankind. For the Muslim believer these attempts are themselves secondary to a larger attempt to please his Creator, who is to be actively recognized as being greater ( akbar ) than this purely human network of expectations, duties and hopes. A tall order indeed! In such a context, the Muslim sees his Islam as a unified enterprise of private faith and public practice, which cultivates the...

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