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progressive tax

A tax is said to be progressive if the percentage of an individual's income which is paid in tax increases as their income increases, so that the rich pay relatively more than the poor. ...

progressive tax

progressive tax   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... tax A tax in which the rate of tax increases with increases in the tax base. In the UK, the most obvious such tax is income tax but progressive rates are also applied to National Insurance contributions , inheritance tax , and to a limited extent corporation tax . Such taxes are generally justified on the ability-to-pay principle. Compare flat tax ; regressive tax...

progressive tax

progressive tax   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... tax A tax in which the rate of tax increases with increases in the tax base. In the UK, the most obvious such tax is income tax but progressive rates are also applied to National Insurance contributions , inheritance tax , and to a limited extent corporation tax . Such taxes are generally justified on the ability-to-pay principle. Compare flat tax ; regressive tax...

progressive tax

progressive tax   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
67 words

... tax A tax in which the rate of tax increases with increases in the tax base . In the UK, the most obvious such tax is income tax but progressive rates are also applied to National Insurance contributions , inheritance tax , and to a limited extent corporation tax . Such taxes are generally justified on the ability-to-pay principle. Compare flat tax ; regressive tax...

progressive tax

progressive tax   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Accounting (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
65 words

... tax A tax in which the rate of tax increases with increases in the tax base . In the UK, the most obvious such tax is income tax but progressive rates are also applied to National Insurance contributions , inheritance tax , and to a limited extent corporation tax . Such taxes are generally justified on the ability-to-pay principle. Compare flat tax...

progressive tax

progressive tax   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
114 words

...progressive tax A tax where the revenue collected rises more than proportionally to the taxable amount or the burden rises more than proportionately to the ability to pay. The UK income tax is made progressive in both senses by having an exemption for low incomes, a low rate for the first slice of taxable income, and higher rates for the largest incomes. This structure is fairly typical. Indirect taxes can be progressive in the second sense if there are exemptions or low tax rates for goods heavily consumed by the poor, for example the UK’s zero...

progressive tax system

progressive tax system   Reference library

The Handbook of International Financial Terms

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... tax system . A method of levying taxes where the payment is linked to the amount of taxable income such that the ratio or percentage of tax levied increases with levels of income. The opposite approach would be a flat rate of tax, levied as a fixed percentage of...

progressive tax

progressive tax  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A tax is said to be progressive if the percentage of an individual's income which is paid in tax increases as their income increases, so that the rich pay relatively more than the poor.
Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,750 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...these, taxes on the value of land are the easiest to administer, land being hard to conceal, while taxes on income or consumption require complex administrative organizations. Much ingenuity has gone into the devising of taxation systems, but most may be classified according to a series of simple dichotomies. Taxes may be either direct (levied on individuals) or indirect (customs or excise levied on consumption). They may be progressive or regressive according to their comprehensiveness and the relative burden they place on the rich and the poor. Taxes may be...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...radical sympathizers. Indeed, for those who did not read too carefully, Paine was himself advocating this. In the second part of Rights of Man , he included an extended section arguing for support for the destitute, infirm, and aged, financed from current taxation and a progressive property tax. His proposals were sufficiently radical (although in line with most modern welfare states) to convey to his opponents a more general sense that the right of property would not be sanctified in the event of a major political change. Moreover, his Agrarian Justice (...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...England about the doctrine of the Trinity, but it was only in the early eighteenth century that the so-called Arian view that Jesus was created and that His divinity was subordinate to that of God the Father began to penetrate Dissent and after mid-century to grow among more progressive thinkers, again chiefly Presbyterians, into insistence on the fully human nature of Jesus (the doctrine of Socinianism). These heterodox tendencies, nourished in a few of the *Dissenting academies that had grown up to educate young men excluded by their Dissent from the...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...characterization of this divided inheritance would run as follows: whereas Burke took a strategic look backwards to feudalism to provide reminders of the intricacy and potential fragility of existing arrangements, Paine projected Smith's vision forwards, seeing commerce as a progressive impulse that had the power of ‘rendering modes of government obsolete’. The characterization is over-neat, because Burke's political economy was equally forward-looking in its appreciation of the hard fiscal and commercial realities that underlay Britain's capacity to wage...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...aesthetic and theoretical responses to the exigencies of the times. Classicism in one form or another was the dominant style for major public buildings because of its capacity to represent conventionally the values of order, hierarchy, magnificence, and tradition. Chambers's progressive Franco-Italian classicism held sway during the first half of the period, with its Roman emphasis on richly articulated wall surfaces. After about 1810 , British architects adopted a restrained Grecian vocabulary whose basic structural element was the free-standing column (with...

Local Government

Local Government   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,193 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the possibilities for local innovation have diminished. At the same time much of the pioneering work of 19th‐century local government in creating the infrastructure and utilities which we take for granted was no longer seen as appropriate for the public sector and was progressively placed in the hands of private corporations. The history of local government in its heroic days of urban poverty, destitution, and disease in industrializing society is now well described in the literature. The less heroic history of the provision of elementary amenities by...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,496 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...tradition, by an assortment of ministers, middle‐class professionals, and the self‐educated, would hardly be worth rescuing from a conflagration, though at best they too breathe with the vigour of progress, a pride in the building of the local gasworks, and other acts of progressive civic humanism. They are best, too, when the indefatigable urge to collect inconsequential snippets releases the James Boswell lurking in the Scots breast. If there are classics of Scottish local history, it would be romantic works such as Robert Chambers , Traditions of...

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,196 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...end of the 1950s , internationalized Spanish publishing at *Seix Barral and introduced the Latin American Boom writers at *Alfaguara . Alianza Editorial (with its pocket editions designed by Daniel Gil), Siglo XX, Taurus, and Cuadernos para el Diálogo, were all symbols of progressive quality of popular publishing in the late Francoist era. Bibliography A. Anselmo , Origens da imprensa em Portugal (1981) — História da edição em Portugal , 1 Das origens até 1536 (1991) P. Berger , Libro y lectura en la Valencia del Renacimiento (1987) Bibliografia Geral...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...town but a major commercial centre with frequent contacts with northern Italy and Germany. It soon became the second most active city for printing in France and, in the 1490s , the third in Europe. Books were sold at its four annual fairs. Of its emergent prosperous, progressive merchant class, Barthélémy Buyer, Le Roy’s patron, was an outstanding example. Paper mills operated in Beaujolais nearby and in not-too-distant Auvergne. By 1485 Lyons boasted at least twelve printers, most of them coming from Germany, such as Martin Huss from Wurtemberg,...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...to cater to its members’ tastes. The crusade for ‘proper’ reading persisted in Sunday school libraries, which increased in number from 2,000 in 1850 to more than 34,000 two decades later, and in the tax-supported school district libraries that began in Massachusetts and New York in the 1830s and 1840s . Local governments launched the movement for tax-supported public libraries, the first being the *Boston Public Library ( 1854 ). The movement spread slowly, but by 1894 , according to one study, there were 566 free public libraries with collections...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...books outside government and missionary circles. His ‘pioneering efforts to publish sacred and “popular” precolonial texts illustrated many trends that were to characterise the emerging sphere of vernacular production’ (Naregal, 185). Bhau Mahājan’s Prabhakar Press printed progressive periodicals such as the Prabhakar and the Dhumketu . The task of typographical reform, on the other hand, was carried on by Jāvjī Dādājī , who had started his career by working at the *American Mission Press , and later joined the staff of the Indu-Prakash Press. In 1864 ...

tax schedule

tax schedule  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The relationship between taxable activity and tax liability. See also progressive tax.
flat tax

flat tax  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A tax with a single rate (as opposed to one in which the rate of tax increases with the size of the tax base) and with no reliefs or exemptions apart from a standard personal allowance. In recent ...

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