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problems of the philosophy of education

Subject: Philosophy

An area where philosophical understanding is applied to the illumination of issues in education—where this notion covers upbringing within the family as well as learning in schools and ...

education, problems of the philosophy of

education, problems of the philosophy of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,573 words

..., problems of the philosophy of . An area where philosophical understanding is applied to the illumination of issues in education—where this notion covers upbringing within the family as well as learning in schools and other institutions. Systematic studies of this kind began in the USA in the mid-twentieth-century and slightly later in Britain and its commonwealth. To begin with, much work was done on investigating concepts like education, teaching, and indoctrination, on the assumption that to be a regular, respectable branch of philosophy like...

problems of the philosophy of education

problems of the philosophy of education  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
An area where philosophical understanding is applied to the illumination of issues in education—where this notion covers upbringing within the family as well as learning in schools and other ...
The Problem of ‘Ulama’

The Problem of ‘Ulama’   Reference library

Alhaji Adeleke Dirisu Ajijola

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,651 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the principles and essential future of the new civilization of the West, and make the best use of their sons and daughters who acquired this education. This should have avoided the present struggle between the stagnant and backward cultural position of Muslim leaders, the ‘ulama’ , and the civilization of the West, which the Western-educated Muslims have acquired, throbbing with life and zeal with light of knowledge and the vigor of activities. This problem can be solved only through the interpretation of the principle of Islamic theology and law in the...

Islam and Humanism

Islam and Humanism   Reference library

Mamadiou Dia

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...reflection on [the original] sources. The Islamic humanism that is being sought cannot forget this lesson, which results from the history of modernist reformism itself. In order to face the problems of the day, Islam needs first to affirm itself as ethical and religious value as much as spiritual personality. To resolve its own problems and confront the modern ideologies, it requires an adequate ideological apparatus built on an authentic Islamic philosophy. Islamic authenticity requires a return to the sources, that is, to the Qur'an and to the [ sunna ], not...

Dialogue Between East and West

Dialogue Between East and West   Reference library

Mohammad Khatami Ayatollah

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,648 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...family in Ardakan in central Iran; his father was the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khatami. After religious studies in Qom, Khatami entered the University of Isfahan in 1965 to study philosophy, followed in 1969 by graduate studies in education at the University of Teheran. Two years later, he returned to Qom to pursue further religious studies in Islamic law, jurisprudence, and philosophy. In Qom he became more immersed in political activity. In 1978, on the eve of the Iranian revolution, he was chosen to lead the Hamburg Islamic Institute in Germany, which played...

A Separate Muslim State in the Subcontinent

A Separate Muslim State in the Subcontinent   Reference library

Muhammad Iqbāl

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,487 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Muslim State in the Subcontinent No other single person has captured the minds and imaginations of Muslims in India-Pakistan as has Iqbāl. After an early classical Islamic education, he studied at Cambridge and Munich, earning a doctorate in philosophy as well as a law degree. Conversant with Western philosophical and scientific thought, Iqbāl advocated a fundamental rethinking of Islamic thought as reflected in his The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam . A prolific author, his poetry and prose touched every area of Muslim life—religion,...

Women

Women   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,844 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of redirecting that education away from accomplishments towards a training of the intellect along rational lines, had long been advocated as a way of improving the situation of women. By the late eighteenth century, an improved education was demanded even by those who did not see the social, legal, or economic position of women as a problem. Wollstonecraft's educational ideas were shared not only by Catharine Macaulay and Mary *Hays , with whom Wollstonecraft was closely identified, but also by others like Maria Edgeworth who rejected any notion of...

Islam and Modernity

Islam and Modernity   Reference library

Fazlur Rahman

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,833 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the credit of the efficacy of the Islamic spirit. We shall have to come back later to this allimportant issue; in the meantime, we must discuss the problem of what is meant by reforming Islamic education itself since, unless some solution to this is forthcoming, it is futile even to raise the question of the Islamization of knowledge: it is the upholders of Islamic learning who have to bear the primary responsibility of Islamizing secular knowledge by their creative intellectual efforts. In essence, then, the whole problem of “modernizing” Islamic education,...

Psychology

Psychology   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,151 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the same. On this view, the philosophy of mind and the psychology of mind would be identical. The phrase ‘science of mind’ would not distinguish between them. Yet because he did not distinguish between the aims and methods of natural science and those of philosophy, the supposed science that he actually practised and advocated was simply the epistemological branch of philosophy under another name. The widespread confusion as to the possible character of a science of mind was both the cause and the effect of a similar confusion about the character of the laws...

The Evolution and Devolution of Religious Knowledge

The Evolution and Devolution of Religious Knowledge   Reference library

Abdul-Karim Soroush

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,758 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...sometimes remains untouched or unattended, namely the extra-textuality of the question of expectations. These problems are not to be decided on the strength of text and tradition or historical facts. On the contrary, tradition and the text should be explained in light of the expectations. Treating these questions requires a good deal of philosophy, politics, sociology, and history, and that is what gives the science of religion the flavor of the age. That also explains why the true ijtihad (rational adjudication) in disciplines such as fiqh ...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...see *education, 17 ]. Cambridge fostered *Whiggish Latitudinarian Enlightenment thought, while the Scottish universities distinguished themselves variously in moral philosophy, jurisprudence, *political economy [33] , *chemistry , and metaphysics. There were particularly strong links also between Ireland and the University of Glasgow, in part because Protestant Dissenters could avoid the Test Acts by pursuing their university education in Scotland. An Irishman, Francis Hutcheson , ( 1694–1746 ), for example, played a major role in the development of...

A Criticism of Religious Thought

A Criticism of Religious Thought   Reference library

Sadiq Al-‘azm

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,598 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...affected by the two most important books of the last two centuries: Capitalism and The Origin of the Species . The corpse of traditional feudal society has been shredded by the machine, and its bones have crumbled under the weight of modern economic and social organization, and with it has passed the fateful, positive attitude toward religion and its problems. In this frantic atmosphere two problems loom large, the first is of a general cultural and ideological nature—the problem of the struggle between science and religion (Islam, for us). The second is a...

The Bible in Judaism

The Bible in Judaism   Reference library

Philip Alexander

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
10

...was to push it more in the direction of allegory. Philosophy, which had been introduced into rabbinic Judaism by Saadia in the ninth century, received a major boost with the publication in the late twelfth century of Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed . The fact that Maimonides (1135–1204) was acknowledged to be the greatest Jewish legalist of his day gave his philosophical magnum opus an authority that could not be ignored. The purpose of the Guide was to show that the teachings of the Torah and the teachings of philosophy were compatible. To do so...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the literary public sphere as a model for political representation would also be one of the last such visions to be entertained seriously by Britain's progressive intellectuals. One of the most successful of what Edmund *Burke called these ‘political Men of Letters’, Godwin would argue, in his 1797 Enquirer , that the medium of British prose had now historically developed to its full maturity: ‘the spirit of philosophy has infused itself into the structure of our sentences.’ But at no time since the formation of the Enlightenment category of...

Rethinking Islam Today

Rethinking Islam Today   Reference library

Mohamed Arkoun

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,624 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of authentic “collections,” as mentioned earlier. Similarly, the problems related to the historical process of collecting the Qur'an in an official mushaf [complete text of the Qur'an] became more and more unthinkable under the official pressure of the caliphate because the Qur'an has been used since the beginning of the Islamic state to legitimize political power and to unify the umma . The last official decision closing any discussion of the readings of the received orthodox mushaf was made by the qadi [judge] [Ahmad ibn Musa] Ibn Mujahid after the...

Tolerance and Governance: A Discourse on Religion and Democracy

Tolerance and Governance: A Discourse on Religion and Democracy   Reference library

Soroush Abdolkarim

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,536 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and philosophy of science, particularly the philosophy of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn, in the United Kingdom. During the months preceding the Islamic revolution of Iran, Soroush had a major role in the gatherings of young Muslims, opponents of the Shah's regime, that took place in the London imam-barah . His book Dialectical Antagonism , a compilation of his lectures delivered in the imam-barah , was published in Iran. When the revolution began in 1979, Soroush returned to Iran. In the spring of 1980, Soroush was appointed a member of the Council for the...

Minorities in a Democracy

Minorities in a Democracy   Reference library

Humayun Kabir

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,430 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...have been the first khalifa and not Abu Bakr. ‘Ali himself repudiated them and accepted Abu Bakr as the khalifa but the voice of dissension had already risen. The same problem arose with greater intensity at the time of the election of ‘Umar [ibn al-Khattab, reigned 634–644]. These two elections were however generally welcome but dissensions became much more bitter at the time of the election of ‘Uthman [reigned 644–656] and ‘Ali himself [reigned 656–661]. Many of you remember the story of Karbala and the martyrdom of Husayn [younger son of ‘Ali,...

The Early Church

The Early Church   Reference library

Henning Graf Reventlow

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,415 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
6

...as a history of disaster, is started by Jesus anew with his coming, now as a history of salvation. The criticism of the Old Testament ethics by the Gnostics is answered by the thesis of the two ‘economies’: granted that people of Old Testament times were still imperfect—humans could just learn by experience, and this took time! ( iv , 38: 1.; 39: 1 ). Therefore the word of God became a child with the childhood of humankind ( iv , 38: 2 ). Accommodation and education ( iv , 14: 2 ) characterize God's acts in history. The triune God (the ‘word’) was...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...By making the pressure of population on the living standards of the mass of society an ‘imminent and immediate’ problem rather than one that lay in some distant future, Malthus undermined some of the more extravagant hopes of achieving mastery over nature, including human nature, that were characteristic of rationalistic forms of the *Enlightenment [32] , whether based on technocratic promise or universal benevolence and social transparency. Malthus also queried what he took to be an unwarranted implication of Smith's model of economic growth, the assumption...

Publishing

Publishing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,242 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the inability of his legal publishers to prevent such piracy. Piracy might have been a problem for law-abiding British publishers, particularly because of the difficulty of policing the activities of systematic operators like Patrick Byrne ( fl. 1789–1802 ), who worked out of the lively provincial publishing centre of Dublin, but at least compared to other European nations, the British press was relatively free. Prior censorship of published works (though not of theatrical performances) ended with the lapse of the Licensing Act in 1695 , and the...

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