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specificity of fitness principle

The principle that athletes need to develop the right kind of fitness for their particular activity because different sports vary in their physical demands

principle of specificity

principle of specificity   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

... of specificity A basic training principle which states that, in order to improve a particular component of physical fitness, a person must emphasize that component in training. A training programme must stress the physiological systems used to perform a particular activity in order to achieve specific training adaptations. Consequently, a weight lifter who trains only for strength and power will probably be stronger than an untrained person, but have no better aerobic endurance. See also principle of progressive overload...

specificity of fitness principle

specificity of fitness principle   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

... of fitness principle The principle that athletes need to develop the right kind of fitness for their particular activity because different sports vary in their physical...

specificity of fitness principle

specificity of fitness principle  

The principle that athletes need to develop the right kind of fitness for their particular activity because different sports vary in their physical demands
principle of specificity

principle of specificity  

A basic training principle which states that, in order to improve a particular component of physical fitness, a person must emphasize that component in training. A training programme must stress the ...
Shari‘a and Basic Human Rights Concerns

Shari‘a and Basic Human Rights Concerns   Reference library

‘Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na‘im

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,922 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of this evolutionary principle of interpretation to specific instances of discrimination against women and non-Muslims can be illustrated by the rule of shari‘a prohibiting marriage between a Muslim woman and a non-Muslim man. This rule is based on the combined operation of the guardianship of the man, in this case the husband, over his wife, and that of a Muslim over a non-Muslim. Since a non-Muslim husband may not be the guardian of his Muslim wife, shari‘a prohibits such a marriage. If either form of guardianship, of a husband over his wife or of a...

Islam and the Malay Civilizational Identity: Tension and Harmony Between Ethnicity and Religiosity

Islam and the Malay Civilizational Identity: Tension and Harmony Between Ethnicity and Religiosity   Reference library

Bakar Osman

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,678 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...corners of the earth and the Malay race long known for its openness to cultural influences both from its east and its west, a new Malay civilizational identity was born. The objective of this inquiry is made necessary by the contemporary concern for the future of the world's multi-civilizational character. This concern is expressed in the form of questions that raise doubts about the direction in which our global order is presently moving. Are we reaffirming the principle of civilizational pluralism or are we abandoning it? Are we advocating dialogues of...

Islam and Violence: Our Forgotten Legacy

Islam and Violence: Our Forgotten Legacy   Reference library

Abou El Fadl Khaled

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,551 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of nationalistic defiance to the other—a vulgar form of obstructionism to the hegemony of the Western world. Therefore, instead of Islam being a moral vision given to humanity, it is constructed into the antithesis of the West. In the world constructed by these groups, there is no Islam; there is only opposition to the West. I am not implying that resistance to Western cultural hegemony, or fighting oppression, is illegitimate. But the type of Islam that the radicalized groups offer is akin to a perpetual state of emergency where expedience trumps principle,...

Qur'an and Woman

Qur'an and Woman   Reference library

Amina Wadud-Muhsin

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,749 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...at the time of the revelation, women of wealthy and powerful tribes were veiled and secluded as an indication of protection. The Qur'an acknowledges the virtue of modesty and demonstrates it through the prevailing practices. The principle of modesty is important—not the veiling and seclusion which were manifestations particular to that context. These were culturally and economically determined demonstrations of modesty. 18 Modesty is not a privilege of the economically advantaged only: all believing women deserve the utmost respect and protection of their...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the origins of poverty, its inevitability, and whether and how it should be relieved were established in Christian belief, economic principle, and theories of *population . Between 1770 and 1830 , the experience and meanings of poverty came under pressure from *war [2] and rapid economic, social, and demographic change. By the early nineteenth century, commentators were no longer as certain as their eighteenth-century predecessors had been that ties of sentiment and models of social order required poverty to be met with charity. The redefinition of...

The Characteristics of Islamic Economics

The Characteristics of Islamic Economics   Reference library

Āyatullāh Mahmūd

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,392 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...system and with the rights of all participants. Individual ownership is based on the innate and natural freedom of individuals, and cooperation is based on common needs and interests. Now the theory of capitalism and the theory of collectivism, when actually practiced, dispenses with all their theoretical principles. Capitalist countries, which are based on the principle of free and unlimited ownership, inevitably go down the road of unbridled capitalism, and as a result the nationalization of the means of production and of the large industries follows. On...

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism   Reference library

Marcus Walsh

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,054 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Editions of American Authors (established 1963 ). Bowers’s major statements of bibliographical and editorial principle and method may be found in Principles of Bibliographical Description ( 1949 ), On Editing Shakespeare and the Elizabethan Dramatists ( 1955 ), Textual and Literary Criticism ( 1959 ), and Bibliography and Textual Criticism ( 1964 ). A major predicate of the work of McKerrow, Greg, Bowers, and Tanselle is that the goal of literary editorial enquiry is the text intended finally by the author. In an age where the concept of authorial...

A Criticism of Religious Thought

A Criticism of Religious Thought   Reference library

Sadiq Al-‘azm

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,598 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...should be proportionate to the strength of the arguments supporting it and the number of signs indicating its correctness. There is no doubt that this principle enunciates a noble ideal which man can realize only to a certain degree, no matter how intelligent or how free he may be from fanaticism and passion in forming his studied opinions on the various subjects of life. . . . James asks if there are various cases in which a man is right in affirming a matter despite the clear lack of indications and confirmation of its truth or falsehood. He answers that...

The Medina Document

The Medina Document   Reference library

Ali Bulaç

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,296 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to the principle of “you are what you are.” The fact that terms like “wounding,” “killing,” “costs of bloodshed,” “ransom for freedom” are uttered frequently in the text reflects the normal condition of a society shaken and worn out by long years of internal strife. The urgent problem of the day was to end the conflicts and to find a formulation for the co-existence of all sides according to the principles of justice and righteousness. In this respect, the Document is epochal. Its historical nature and the small number of the people...

Social Justice in Islam

Social Justice in Islam   Reference library

Sayyid Qutb

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,905 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by the processes of time and by the emergence of individual problems. But Islam itself does not deal with the incidental related issues of the principle, except insofar as such are expressions of an unchanging principle whose impact is felt universally. This is the limit of the authority which can be claimed by a religion, in order that it may guarantee its flexibility and ensure the possibility of its own growth and expansion over a period of time. . . . The conclusion from this is that we should not put away the social aspect of our faith on the shelf;...

Tolerance and Governance: A Discourse on Religion and Democracy

Tolerance and Governance: A Discourse on Religion and Democracy   Reference library

Soroush Abdolkarim

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,536 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...power is closely related to the establishment of justice and human rights. Indeed, the two efforts are in such constant exchange and harmony that any trouble or tension in one reverberates in the other. Justice, then, is a metareligious category, and the right and acceptable religion should, inevitably, be just. The same is true of other categories such as discovery and derivation of methods of just government, distribution and restriction of power, and the specific instances of human rights. All of the above issues have, primarily and logically, a...

The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islam

The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islam   Reference library

Muhammad Iqbal

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,677 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...habits of the people immediately before him. The shari‘a values ( ahkam ) resulting from this application (e.g., rules relating to penalties for crimes) are in a sense specific to that people; and since their observance is not an end in itself they cannot be strictly enforced in the case of future generations. It was perhaps in view of this that Abu Hanifa [circa 699–767], who had a keen insight into the universal character of Islam, made practically no use of these traditions. The fact that he introduced the principle of istihsan , i.e., juristic...

The Minority Report

The Minority Report   Reference library

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,806 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...new set of laws of jurisprudence in supersession of the existing one by generalizing from specific provisions, nor are they willing to be guided by the established laws of jurisprudence as their guiding star and beacon light. It is obvious, therefore, that to take personal and individual whims as the basis for the derivation of laws and principles is neither fiqh nor ijtihād but amounts to distorting the religion of God and the worst type of heresy. In spite of their blatant departure from the view of the Muslim commentators and jurists, no member of the...

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...essence of it, lay some form of ritual, although the more elaborate occasions were often surrounded by ancillary activities like dancing, sports, or feasting as well (see Charles Phythian‐Adams , Local History and Folklore: A New Framework (1975) ). Ritual openly mobilized quite specific participants and different symbolic objects through a conventionalized series of actions in a range of locations that varied according to the nature of the occasion. Ritual ‘moved’ people out of their usual stations in the life‐cycle, either for the purposes of...

Human Procreation

Human Procreation   Reference library

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,970 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the other couple. It is often done in lieu of a specified remuneration or free of charge. People resort to this procedure either because a married woman who desires to have a child has problems in carrying her child to its full term or because of her desire to simply forgo the “trouble” of conception and labor. According to the rules of Shari‘ah, surrogate motherhood as described above is not allowed, since it involves introducing the sperm of a male into the uterus of a woman to whom he is not married and, thus, it clearly falls under the specific...

Political Theory of Islam

Political Theory of Islam   Reference library

Mawdūdī Abū-L-‘Alā’

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,340 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...juggler's bag out of which can be produced anything that holds a demand! Such is the intellectual plight in which we are engulfed. . . . First Principle of Islamic Political Theory The belief in the Unity [ tawhīd ] and the sovereignty of Allah is the foundation of the social and moral system propounded by the Prophets. It is the very starting-point of the Islamic political philosophy. The basic principle of Islam is that human beings must, individually and collectively, surrender all rights of overlordship, legislation and exercising of authority over...

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