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primary and secondary definers

Primary definers are credible individuals and institutions granted media access to enable their initial framing of events which are assumed to be within their area of ...

primary and secondary definers

primary and secondary definers   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
91 words

... and secondary definers Primary definers are credible individuals and institutions granted media access to enable their initial framing of events which are assumed to be within their area of competence: for instance, experts, official sources, courts, leading politicians, and senior religious figures. The mass media are secondary definers . The government is a primary definer of news insofar as the media rely heavily on government officials as news sources. See also agenda setting ; amplification of deviance ; moral panic ; news values...

primary and secondary definers

primary and secondary definers  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
Primary definers are credible individuals and institutions granted media access to enable their initial framing of events which are assumed to be within their area of competence: for instance, ...
Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... to Aldous Huxley , Evelyn Waugh , and Kazuo Ishiguro should properly be considered as primary sources. The secondary literature on the high‐status house is vast and can be treated only in a perfunctory manner here. Until relatively recently, much of it was written by architects or art historians, and concentrated on developments in architectural style which reflected contemporary perceptions of aesthetic value, often with an underlying polemical message for current practice. Thus, the needs of the Gothic Revival in the 19th century prompted the...

Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the assize judges to the county towns of England and Wales remained an essential administrative point of contact between the centre and the localities; they were also perceived by Georgian governments as primary media for communicating the good news about equal rights under common law and for moral suasion of the lower orders. And in the absence of real *policing [7] , substantial property owners and the proliferating business community in London and other cities looked to the criminal law as the primary safeguard for their property against what they were...

In the Beginning: The Earliest History

In the Beginning: The Earliest History   Reference library

Michael D. Coogan

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,305 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...architectural styles had changed, and the typical house had become smaller, another sign of population expansion. Like other Neolithic sites, Ain Ghazal gives evidence of trade with distant regions. There are seashells from both the Mediterranean and Red Seas, and copper and semiprecious stones from sources as distant as the Sinai Peninsula. Obsidian is also found. This volcanic glass was often favored in the Neolithic Age for use in knives and other tools and weapons, although stone continued to be the primary raw material for these artifacts....

The Bible in the Eastern Churches

The Bible in the Eastern Churches   Reference library

George Bebawi

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,758 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
6

...weaken or undermine the New Testament, but rather points to more than the basic and primary question among them: how did ancient Christians read and understand the Bible? Truth for the early Christians was not an idea, but the Son of God Incarnate, that is, the person of Jesus Christ. Thus in relation to the personal understanding and to the personal relationship with the person of Jesus, words and texts must be understood. The reinterpretation of the Old Oracles is desirable and becomes a necessity which is determined by the New Revelation: one whose truth...

Introduction to the Pauline Corpus

Introduction to the Pauline Corpus   Reference library

Terence L. Donaldson

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
25,035 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and perception. The foundational level, located in structures beneath the surface of the text, consists of Paul's set of basic convictions, things that he took to be axiomatic or self-evident. Some of these were native convictions, stemming from his primary formation in Judaism; others were secondary and reconstitutive, stemming from his Damascus experience. We have already discussed the way in which Paul's ‘conversion’ experience can be seen as a redrawing of his primary Jewish convictions around the new belief that God had raised Jesus from death and thus...

Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of Egypt

Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of Egypt   Reference library

Carol A. Redmount

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
16,877 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...ancient world. Vast quantities of raw data, both textual and archaeological, have been collected and processed; innumerable synthetic works have been produced; and anthologies of primary and secondary sources have proliferated. Granted, our knowledge is not perfect; a number of variously sized holes in our understanding remain to be filled, and individual historical sources can be problematic. Collectively, however, the weight of accumulated historical knowledge is both impressive and indisputable—and almost without exception decisive for larger issues of...

Literary Theory

Literary Theory   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,935 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...depress sales. Convinced by these arguments, Coleridge claims to have withheld the rest of the deduction and contented himself with ‘the main result’, the definition of the imagination. The paragraphs that conclude this chapter do align perception and artistic creation with an absolute creative force. The creative power evident in art (the secondary imagination) is an echo of the creative work manifest in perception (the primary imagination), which in turn is nothing less than ‘a repetition in the finite mind of the eternal act of creation in the infinite I...

Deuteronomy

Deuteronomy   Reference library

Christoph Bultmann and Christoph Bultmann

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
28,352 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...12:28–34 ). Faith is a possible decision in the face of death and ‘evil’ (RSV). The beginning of the secondary vv. 16–19 a has been lost in the MT but can be restored following the LXX, cf. 7:12–13; 8:19–20 . Report of Moses' Parting from Israel, Including his Poem and his Blessings ( 31:1–34:12 ) ( 31:1–8 ) The Appointment of Joshua NRSV rightly restores the beginning of this section following the LXX and the fragmentary MS 1Q Deut b from Qumran (DJD 1. 59). The narrator resumes 3:28–9 and prepares the transition to the book of Joshua, cf. Josh 1:1–9 ....

Before Israel: Syria-Palestine in the Bronze Age

Before Israel: Syria-Palestine in the Bronze Age   Reference library

Wayne T. Pitard

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
17,805 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...ninety, conceives and gives birth to Isaac, the divinely designated heir. Few traditions about Isaac are preserved in the narratives. Most of the stories of Isaac present him as a character secondary to the main protagonists, who are either his father, Abraham, or his sons, Jacob and Esau. The only narratives in which Isaac does play the primary role ( Gen. 26 ) virtually duplicate stories told earlier about Abraham. For the most part these quasi-reruns reiterate themes found in the Abraham cycle. Isaac and his wife Rebekah...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

Neil Harris

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,132 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...cent. Primary schooling became obligatory in 1877 , but a lack of resources and the opposition of the clergy meant that the law remained a dead letter in many places; in 1911 the number of Italians with inadequate literacy skills still averaged 38 per cent. 8 The 20 th and 21 st centuries: two wars, Fascism, and after In 1901 , the Italian book trade presented geographical and cultural anomalies that remain substantially true today. Rome was the political capital; Milan, dominated by the rivalry between *Sonzogno and Treves, was the economic and...

2 The Sacred Book

2 The Sacred Book   Reference library

Carl Olson

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Church also struggled to define and understand itself separately from Judaism. And it wondered how it could appeal to the Gentiles without losing its original Jewish identity. Finally, the problem associated with the delay of the parousia (second coming of Jesus) and the end of the world served as motivating factors in committing Jesus’ message to writing. Although Christianity was an apocalyptic sect within Palestinian Judaism and Jesus was a Palestinian Jew, the world of the New Testament was dominated by Greek language and culture; the language itself...

Extra-canonical early Christian literature

Extra-canonical early Christian literature   Reference library

J. K. Elliott and J. K. Elliott

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
30,133 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...cases such texts are obviously secondary to, and influenced by, earlier works. However, as will be seen below, some of the texts that are now published as NT apocryphal writings may have been composed as early as the first century and therefore be contemporaneous with the NT writings proper. Indeed, some scholars argue for the independence of some of the so-called apocryphal texts (the Gospel of Peter , the Gospel of Thomas , Egerton Papyrus 2). In other words, some of these early writings may merit study as primary sources alongside those texts which...

Kinship and Kingship: The Early Monarchy

Kinship and Kingship: The Early Monarchy   Reference library

Carol Meyers

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
20,793 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...a royal state and in heading its organizational structures is significant, that role is not necessarily primary. We must set aside the “great man” notion of the emergence of the Israelite monarchy, as resulting from the charisma of a person and/or the supernatural direction of a deity, in order to examine the social dynamics and environmental features of state formation and organization. The rise of a state system in Israel is best comprehended by identifying the social pressures and patterns hidden beneath the layers of traditional theological and political...

Introduction to the Pentateuch

Introduction to the Pentateuch   Reference library

G. I. Davies

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
32,329 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the Exodus, wilderness, and Sinai themes. In all of this, Noth argued, Moses is dispensable and therefore a secondary element. He originally belonged in fact to the story of the settlement in Canaan, because his grave was located in land claimed by the Israelite tribes ( cf. Deut 34:1–6 with Josh 13:15–23 ), and those elements of the stories about him that are not likely to have been invented (his foreign wife, criticism of his leadership) therefore originally belong here. 19. While the views of von Rad and Noth have been very influential, they...

Philippians

Philippians   Reference library

Robert Murray, SJ and Robert Murray, SJ

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
13,932 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...quotes for his purpose, first proposed by Lohmeyer ( 1928 ), has come to dominate both exegesis of Philippians and study of early Christology and credal formulas, though the term ‘hymn’ remains imprecisely defined and the theory still takes various forms, including earlier composition by Paul. The literature is enormous; with the standard survey by Martin ( 1983 ); see now O'Brien ( 1991 : 186–271 ). A rare voice questioning the theory's solidity and value for exegesis is raised by Fee ( 1992 ; 1995 ). 5. Evaluation: whatever the origin of this undeniably...

1 & 2 Samuel

1 & 2 Samuel   Reference library

Gwilym H. Jones, Gwilym H. Jones, and Gwilym H. Jones

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
44,450 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to these events with serenity; they proved that God was fulfilling his word, and by implication he had received forgiveness. A brief notice of Solomon's birth in vv. 24–5 is beset with difficulties. A possible understanding of the events is that, if the Nathan parable and the secondary vv. 15 b –24 a are ignored, v. 24 b follows on 11:27 a , thus giving ‘and bore him a son and she called his name Solomon’. The whole section relating to the death of the firstborn and the birth of ‘his replacement’ ( šĕlômôh ) was inserted to avoid the identification...

Mark

Mark   Reference library

C. M. Tuckett and C. M. Tuckett

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
44,701 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...with the previous story in showing both Jesus' concern with sinners and sin and his unique authority. ( 2:18–22 ) Old and New The next story concerns the issue of fasting. Again the story is probably composite, with vv. 19 b –20 representing a secondary allegorizing of an original tradition. John's disciples and Pharisees are said to be fasting, and Jesus is asked why his own disciples do not. Fasting was required of all Jews at times, though the story here, by singling out the Pharisees and John for mention, suggests that the fasting in question was an extra...

Hebrews

Hebrews   Reference library

Harold W. Attridge and Harold W. Attridge

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
22,421 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...St Paul appears a lengthy work celebrating the person and work of Jesus Christ and encouraging fidelity to his covenant. Although the attribution is certainly secondary, the document is a masterpiece of early Christian homiletics, weaving creative scriptural exegesis with effective exhortation. A. Authorship. 1. Hebrews does not name its author. A reference to ‘our brother Timothy’ ( 13:23 ) may have occasioned the tradition that Paul composed the work. Differences in style and theology between Hebrews and the assuredly genuine epistles of Paul make that...

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