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pre-Boreal

A warmer division of the Flandrian. For the rapid climate change at the Younger Dryas-Pre-Boreal transition, see Starkel (2003) Glob. & Planet. Change 35, 1.

Pre-Boreal

Pre-Boreal   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...-Boreal A warmer division of the Flandrian . For the rapid climate change at the Younger Dryas–Pre-Boreal transition, see Starkel (2003) Glob. & Planet. Change 35, 1...

pre-Boreal

pre-Boreal   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Plant Sciences (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
46 words

...-Boreal The first Flandrian ( Holocene , or post-glacial) stage, a time of rapid forest spread, from about 10  300–9600 bp . Pre-Boreal refers to climatic conditions and in vegetational terms is equivalent to Pollen Zone IV of the standard British and European post-glacial pollen...

pre-Boreal

pre-Boreal   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...-Boreal The first Flandrian ( Holocene , or post-glacial) stage, a time of rapid forest spread, from about 10300–9600 bp . Pre-Boreal refers to climatic conditions and in vegetational terms is equivalent to Pollen Zone IV of the standard British and European post-glacial pollen chronology. See pollen zone...

Pre‐Boreal Phase

Pre‐Boreal Phase   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
62 words

...‐Boreal Phase [Ge] A biostratigraphic subdivision of the Flandrian in which conditions were warmer and drier than in the preceding Younger Dryas . Godwin 's pollen zone IV corresponds with the PreBoreal in Britain, marked by the development of birch forests in formerly tundra regions. The PreBoreal generally spans the period from c .8300 bc down to c .7700 bc in northern...

pre-Boreal

pre-Boreal  

A warmer division of the Flandrian. For the rapid climate change at the Younger Dryas-Pre-Boreal transition, see Starkel (2003) Glob. & Planet. Change 35, 1.
pre-boring

pre-boring   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...-boring 1. Putting a pilot hole in a material. 2. Drilling a hole for a...

Population Levels and Trends

Population Levels and Trends   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,124 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in Pre‐Industrial England’, Economic History Review , 2nd ser., 19/1 ( 1966 ), which examined one Devon parish, Colyton. (See also the journal Local Population Studies , which in vol. 77 ( 2006 ) began an introductory series on a range of sources and methods commonly used in local population history.) Further advances in the understanding of historical demography were made in the 1970s, starting with the overviews: M. W. Flinn , British Population Growth, 1700–1850 ( 1970 ), and J. D. Chambers , Population, Economy and Society in Pre‐Industrial...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the former in the western Himalayas, the latter in the Assam valley. Birch bark was known as bhurjapatra , and is frequently mentioned in northern Buddhist and Brahmanical Sanskrit works (Buhler, 1973 ). After writing, the finished stack of leaves was strung on a cord through pre-bored holes and protected by a pair of wooden covers. This form of the book—known as the puthi or pothi —survived until the mid-19 th century, with some minor variations. In Nepal, for example, covers of valuable MSS were sometimes made of embossed metal, while Jain MSS were kept...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,011 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...decades of the 17 th century to create a Latin Stock and an Irish Stock proved unsuccessful. At the same time as the Stationers’ Company was consolidating its power, the book trade itself was also undergoing a process of division and specialization. When Caxton printed a book, he bore the up-front costs—such as buying paper—himself (though he also relied on the frequent support of aristocratic patrons). He then printed the book using his own press and sold at least some copies directly to the buying public. As the 16 th century progressed, these three aspects...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in conformity to universal precepts. While Scottish moderatism was flowering in the 1750s, the Enlightenment in England at this period appeared near-moribund. Attempts to synthesize science and religion had become tired and derivative, moderate religion had become genteel and boring, and liberal politics was threatened by the appropriation of its universal concerns and symbolism (predominantly neoclassical) for self-congratulatory patriotic ends. This mould of complacency was broken, however, early in George III 's reign with the revival of the cause of ...

Flandrian

Flandrian  

The present interglacial, during which there has been a global rise in sea level—the Flandrian transgression, caused by the melting of ice sheets and glaciers (Smith et al. (2006) ESPL 8, 5). The ...
Book of …

Book of …  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The pre-Gutenberg sources of much of Celtic tradition are found in the great collections of manuscripts compiled in monasteries and castles between 800 and 1500. Each collection or codex bore a title ...
down-hole hammer drilling

down-hole hammer drilling  

A method of drilling a borehole using a pneumatic, percussive hammer drill. The rock is fragmented by repeated impaction presented directly to it. This produces a medium- diameter hole, but drilling ...
borax

borax  

A colourless monoclinic solid, Na2B4O7.10H2O, soluble in water and very slightly soluble in ethanol; monoclinic; r.d. 1.73; loses 8H2O at 75°C; loses 10H2O at 320°C. The formula gives a misleading ...
Megachilidae

Megachilidae  

; order Hymenoptera, suborder Apocrita)Large, cosmopolitan family of solitary bees, in which the pollen scopa consists entirely of tracts of stiff hairs on the abdominal sterna (see sternum). The ...
Ermengild

Ermengild  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. c.700),queen of Mercia, abbess of Ely. She was the daughter of Erconbert, king of Kent, and of his wife Sexburga, who was sister of Etheldreda. Ermengild married Wulfhere, king of Mercia (657–74) ...
Fra Filippo Lippi

Fra Filippo Lippi  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(b Florence, c.1406; d Spoleto, 10 Oct. 1469).Florentine painter. He was brought up as an unwanted child in the Carmelite friary of S. Maria del Carmine, where he took his vows in 1421. Unlike the ...
Christian names

Christian names  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The personal names that had been used by people of Anglo‐Saxon and Scandinavian descent mostly fell out of fashion after the Norman Conquest, though some remained in use long enough to be used as ...
Flandrian

Flandrian   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The present interglacial , during which there has been a global rise in sea level—the Flandrian transgression , caused by the melting of ice sheets and glaciers ( Smith et al. (2006) ESPL 8, 5 ). The Flandrian is divided into the Pre-Boreal , Boreal , and Atlantic...

Flandrian Stage

Flandrian Stage   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
91 words

...the Devensian Stage at the end of the Pleistocene , and as such could be seen simply as the latest in a succession of interglacial warm periods. The Flandrian embraces pollen zones IV through to IX as set out by Harry Godwin in 1940 , and the climatic phases from the PreBoreal through to the Sub‐Atlantic...

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