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power elite

[De]

Small networks of individuals who, according to the interpretation of C. Wright Mills, hold concentrated power in modern societies.

power elite

power elite   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
22 words

... elite [De] Small networks of individuals who, according to the interpretation of C. Wright Mills , hold concentrated power in modern...

power elite

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A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
112 words

... elite A concept developed by C. Wright Mills in his book of that name (published in 1956 ) and used by him to refer to the American ruling elite. According to his analysis this was an elite which was composed of business, government, and military leaders, bound together by the shared social backgrounds of these leaders and the interchange of personnel between its three segments. Mills's text provoked considerable controversy. A representative selection of liberal and radical responses, together with a retrospective essay by Mills himself, will be found...

power elite

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A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
117 words

...power elite Those politically, economically, or culturally powerful individuals, organizations, or institutions whose every action or utterance seems virtually guaranteed to become news . Presidents, prime ministers, and other senior politicians all form part of the power elite as far as most news organizations are concerned, as will institutions such as the Pentagon, the Vatican, NATO, and even the exclusive private school Eton. Not only are their own initiatives and announcements more likely to be deemed newsworthy than those of others with less power,...

power elite

power elite  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

... elite A term introduced by the sociologist C. Wright Mills ( The Power Elite , 1959 ) to describe the small interlocking group of corporate executives, government officials, and military leaders that, he argued, held effective control of major social and political decision making in the United States. This group, Mills argued, generally operated in the interests of what he called “military capitalism,” but it was not identical with the capitalist class and was capable of acting against that class's short-term interests. Mills's power elite was broadly...

power elite

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Stewart Wood

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
68 words

... elite Term used by C. Wright Mills in his 1956 study of the same name to refer to the ‘overlapping cliques’ at the helms of the chief political, economic, and military institutions in modern society. Mills argued that these elites share both membership and a set of common interests, and thus that the principal policy decisions for which they are responsible serve common goals. Stewart...

power elite

power elite  

Reference type:
Overview Page
[De]Small networks of individuals who, according to the interpretation of C. Wright Mills, hold concentrated power in modern societies.
War

War   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,919 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...centralization in Britain amounted to very little, so that an impressive show of authority and power at the centre, rather like a Georgian mansion and household, turns out to have depended largely on what was actually done by a scarcely visible army of functionaries, each engaged in his local task. Comparatively little conflict took place in central politics between the small governing élite and those outside, simply because the power that mattered most, the power to control local communities, was found elsewhere. In 1813–14 two great public campaigns,...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...posed to the established political and social order during the age of revolution, the propertied élite remained ascendant. The *Reform Bill of 1832 did not significantly diminish their power and did not hand power over to the middle classes, still less to the working classes. Indeed, in some ways it consolidated traditional political influence. None the less, while a small group of mainly landed nobles and gentry dominated the formal institutions of power and Britain successfully avoided any revolutionary upheaval (unlike most other countries in Europe),...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...caricatures—kept these issues in the public domain, maintained their salience, and sustained, both for the reformers and for the common people who looked on, a frisson of delight from their satirical subversion of a discomfited élite. The innovative character of many works in the debate, their rhetorical inventiveness and power, their sheer volume and mass circulation, ensured that the controversy over France and reform pervaded British society in one form or other. This ‘mass’ popular character to the debate was deliberately sought by reformers, but from...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the Jamaican Society for the Cultivation of Agriculture and other Arts and Sciences, or the Society of Arts of Barbados. Though such colonial replicas were often short-lived, they testified to the dissemination of cultural values which helped to bind the metropolitan power with the colonial élites of the scattered empire, just as the goals of improvement had done much after the *Act of Union to weld Scotland and England into a more effective greater Britain. The need for such informal ties was the stronger because of the lack of a clear institutional...

Local Government

Local Government   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,202 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of encouraging the domination of the vestry by a minority of landholders or tenants. The power of the vestry to determine its own poor relief policy was ended by the 1834 Poor Law legislation, but the vestry itself survived and in 1894 it was transformed into the parish council. Before 1834 the development of local government outside a few major †towns (and especially London , which presents problems of its own) must be seen in terms of the evolution of the power and authority of the JPs. They were crown appointees named to a panel, the Commission of...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,891 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...merely confirmed the point. The Revolution, inevitably, had major repercussions in French colonial possessions, spreading thence to the British islands, where white élites were terrorized by fears of slave unrest. The early sectional and racial bickering in St Domingue deteriorated after 1791 into a major slave revolt. In the ensuing conflict the sugar economy was destroyed, along with the power and the very being of the local plantocracy. The British, keen to seize another lucrative sugar possession for themselves, dispatched an invasion force to St...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...After a decline in the 1930s , Ghana’s Methodist Book Depot enjoyed a 60 per cent share of the national educational market by 1950 , regularly distributing 500,000 copies of individual *textbooks . Mission presses also facilitated the growth of literate African elites, allowing local writers access to print and distribution networks, and, with the spread of literacy, to audiences for writing in indigenous African, as well as in European, languages. Literary genres encouraged by missionary presses—exemplary lives, conversion narratives,...

Medicine

Medicine   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,985 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...society. The distinctive cultural formation of *spa towns operated precisely at this nexus of *consumerism [19] and medicalization. Historians of eighteenth-century medicine used to present a picture of an ordered, hierarchical, pyramidal medical profession, one with an élite of physicians at the top, a larger number of surgeons in the middle, and a heap of apothecaries at the foot. Medicine was regulated by corporations. Physicians commanded greatest prestige because they had been trained at university, and ‘physick’—the art of diagnosis and...

Richard III

Richard III   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,559 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...critics have moved away from Tillyard’s providential reading, observing that the chronicles emphasize the practical benefits brought by Richmond’s reconciliation of the warring houses of Lancaster and York as Henry VII. They also challenge Tillyard by highlighting elements of non-elite and popular culture (e.g. the citizens) that problematize claims for any single official ideology or traditional moral design. Stage history: The play’s initial popularity is attested by the number of early editions and the frequency of contemporary allusions and anecdotes, the...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...women's attraction to rakes and libertines. Eighteenth-century writers suggested that such male figures represented the attractions of prodigality, playfulness, and sexual pleasures to women. Women's possibilities, however, existed in a world where men still monopolized most powerpower they could invest in their sexuality. The continuing attractiveness of this style of manhood to women was also explained by the apparent inadequacy of men of feeling or, rather, by the unfathomed question of their sexuality. To make men more sensitive, more delicate, was, in...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,011 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...perpetual copyright did not go unchallenged over the course of the century, however. Some less well-established members of the trade in England did, from time to time, attempt to assert their entitlement to print works whose copyright had expired. In general the London publishing elite were able to counter such moves, either by exploiting the law courts’ uncertainty over the issue or by simply buying off the publishers concerned. A more determined challenge developed, however, from outside England. In the 18 th century, Scottish and Irish publishing came into...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to a head in that year, allowed Roman Catholics to sit in parliament, thus breaking a Protestant monopoly on legislative power. In the early 1830s, attempts were made to reform the bloated Church of Ireland by suppressing some bishoprics and diverting the savings to secular purposes such as education. Not entirely successful, and attended with profound political and religious consequences, this project nevertheless made plain the power that the secular state could exercise over what many Churchmen believed was the sole province of the Church. Victorian...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,089 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...and circulation continued up to the end of the 19 th century. This was partly a matter of continuing traditions: sutra copying for devotional reasons continued, and so did the production of luxury editions of classical works of literature with fine calligraphy, which the samurai elite preferred to printed copies. A new practice was making MS copies of printed books, either for reasons of economy, or because of rarity, or as a way of learning the text: this last purpose was recommended, for example, in the case of the Onna daigaku (Greater Learning for Women),...

Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the seventeenth-century crisis of rebellions against Church and king culminating in the *Glorious Revolution of 1688 , the increased currency of ideas about *natural rights and a likely decline in the power associated with both the *monarchy and the established Church seems to have elevated the importance of law at several levels. Among the élites, the twice-yearly visitations of the assize judges to the county towns of England and Wales remained an essential administrative point of contact between the centre and the localities; they were also...

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