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Overview

poverty

Subject: History

Poverty is no disgrace, but it is a great incovenience proverbial saying, late 16th century. poverty is not a crime proverbial saying, late 16th century. when poverty ...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... The history of poverty cannot be written simply by establishing a measure or threshold of deprivation and looking for all who fell beneath it, since it is also a history of shifting definitions and perspective. The terms ‘poverty’ and ‘poor’ were particularly dense and highly contested concepts in this period. They described a social and economic situation which sometimes required charity or statutory relief, but they were also terms of political analysis which conveyed specific values, attitudes, and explanations of how society in general was composed...

Poverty

Poverty   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Poverty A condition of absolute or relative deprivation of material and cultural resources. Absolute poverty refers to the condition in which the basic resources necessary to sustain life are lacking; relative poverty is the lack of resources in comparison with other members of a given society. 649 , 662 , 674 See also absolute poverty level ; relative poverty level . ...

poverty

poverty   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
112 words

...lift everybody above the poverty line. If poverty is relative, then poverty will be very difficult to eliminate. See also poverty line ; poverty trap...

poverty

poverty   Quick reference

William Brown

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
676 words

... Poverty is the state of being poor; that is, lacking the basic needs of life such as food, health, education, and shelter. Most frequently, poverty is discussed in relation to household income, though this is contested. In fact, a number of different approaches to defining and measuring poverty can be identified. One distinction is between ‘absolute poverty’ and ‘relative poverty’. Absolute poverty is defined in terms of material deprivation defined in terms of income or other basic needs of life. Absolute poverty is usually measured using a ‘poverty...

poverty

poverty   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... A distinction is usually made between absolute and relative poverty. Absolute poverty is the state of an individual who does not have sufficient resources for subsistence, as in some parts of the world. Definitions of relative poverty are usually used in Western societies. These refer to an individual’s or group’s disadvantaged position when compared with other members of society. They vary in precisely how this is defined but are united in seeing poverty as relative to the standards regarded as those needed to live an adequate life in a particular...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Poverty trap A situation arising when a person’s increase in income is offset by a resultant loss in state benefits, so that they are no better off. When poverty comes in at the door, love flies out at the window See under when...

poverty

poverty   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... The state of having little or no money and few or no material possessions. More than a fifth of the global population today live in poverty, subsisting on less than US $1 a day. There are clear links between poverty, population growth, and environmental problems. These are most evident at the level of individual households or communities, but they can also be detected at the national scale. Poverty is often accompanied by illiteracy, malnutrition and poor health , low status of women, and exposure to environmental hazards . Poverty and lack of...

poverty

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A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...poverty The condition of having insufficient resources to obtain or provide the necessities of life. People afflicted with poverty are especially vulnerable to adverse events they cannot control and often lack political influence and access to needed health and social services. The World Bank defines poverty in low-income nations as an income of US$1 per day or less. In the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ( OECD ) nations, poverty is arbitrarily defined as financial income below a specific level, which varies from one nation to...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,966 words

...Henderson poverty line (from the earlier Melbourne study) and most attention focused on the poverty rate defined using that line. The Inquiry found that the poverty rate in 1973 was just over 10 per cent and that a quarter of a million children were living in poor families. Although an income definition of poverty can be widely understood, poverty defined in this way depends crucially on where the poverty line is set, and thus on how poverty is measured. This has generated an intense debate over the merits of alternative ways of measuring poverty‐most of...

poverty

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A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,368 words

...Since relative poverty is a matter of differences in levels of material resources—that is, of inequalities in their distribution across a society—measures of relative poverty are potentially no less objective than those of absolute poverty. They are not simply a matter of subjective feelings of poverty, though such feelings may be of importance when analysing the consequences of poverty. Subsistence definitions of poverty are of considerable value in examining Third World poverty, and international studies show that the overall level of poverty measured in...

poverty

poverty   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
1,252 words

...as a percentage of the poverty line. It shows the depth of poverty. The poverty severity index further quantifies the level of inequality among those below the poverty line. Welfare definitions of poverty are generally realized by more broad-based indices ( see Human Development Index ). The Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) calculates a Multidimensional Poverty Index based on ten indicators including whether a household has electricity, a dirt floor, clean water within 30 minutes by foot, children at school, and so forth. A household...

poverty

poverty   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
849 words

... A condition of absolute or relative deprivation of material and cultural resources. The term absolute poverty refers to the condition in which the basic resources necessary to sustain life are lacking; relative poverty is the lack of resources in comparison with other members of a given society. Poverty is conventionally measured by income, although a number of studies have called attention to the distinct importance of wealth—or its absence. The concept of the poverty line , first introduced by Charles Booth ( The Life and Labour of the People in...

Poverty

Poverty (The Business of Sustainability)   Reference library

Mark B. MILSTEIN, Erik SIMANIS, Duncan DUKE, and Stuart HART

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,011 words

...poverty manifests itself in localized ways, relying heavily on a subset of tangible or intangible indicators tends to render generalizations about poverty inaccurate. Urban poverty differs significantly from rural poverty. Poverty in highly industrialized nations differs significantly from poverty in agrarian societies. Tangible metrics feel precise, but they mask the fine-grained nature of poverty’s causes, effects, and resolutions. Poverty lines set by specific income levels (e.g., $1, $2, or $3 per day) suggest definitive measures at which poverty does...

Poverty

Poverty   Quick reference

A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
218 words

... Jewish attitudes to poverty vary. Throughout Jewish history the poor are treated with respect, and alleviation of their sufferings is strongly advocated ( see CHARITY ). But this does not necessarily mean that poverty is seen as something of value. There is nothing in Judaism to correspond to the Christian monastic ideal of taking poverty vows. In the Bible possessions are usually seen as a blessing. Generally speaking, much depended on the economic conditions in which Jews found themselves. In Eastern Europe, for example, where the economic conditions...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...determinants in order to better understand the existence of poverty. Third, strategies and solutions to poverty are briefly reviewed. causes of poverty; human capital; labor market; life course; poverty dynamics; poverty measures; poverty rates; residential segregation; social welfare state; solutions to poverty; structural vulnerability Context The subject of poverty has been of central importance to the profession of social work. In fact it could be argued that addressing poverty lies at the heart of what the profession stands for. As Simon notes, the original...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,183 words

...not abolished poverty. Poverty means different things at different times and in different societies. Modern students of poverty, following the classic British studies by Charles Booth and Seebohm Rowntree , defined poverty in terms of a ‘poverty line’, the divide between decent sufficiency and outright want. The poor were unable to afford fuel for heating and cooking, or nourishing food, or weather-proof shelter and housing, or clothing or shoes, or (for the first 100 years) elementary education and certainly not secondary schooling. But poverty was also a...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

Jesudas M. Athyal

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

... South Asia is a region of paradoxes. Traditionally a poverty-stricken area, the region has undergone tremendous economic growth during the past few decades. In India alone, food production has trebled since 1950 . Industrial production went up by 6.9 times between 1951 and 1985 . Economic growth has, in fact, kept ahead of population growth. Such figures, however, tend to blur the reality of stark poverty still widely prevalent in the region, especially in several parts of India * and Bangladesh * . The paradox of affluence and poverty existing...

Poverty.

Poverty.   Reference library

Michael B. Katz

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,965 words

...lift them out of poverty, chronic joblessness defined a large, new component of urban poverty. Throughout American history, poverty has displayed a rural as well as an urban face. In rural areas, low wages, soil exhaustion, the exploitation of sharecroppers and miners, declining prices of farm commodities, and natural disasters all promoted poverty. Rural poverty in southern Appalachia initially inspired the War on Poverty in the early 1960s and the redesign and vast expansion of the food-stamp program a few years later. Although rural poverty persisted, by...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

Michael B. Katz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
2,508 words

...disasters all promoted poverty. Rural poverty in southern Appalachia initially inspired the War on Poverty in the early 1960s and the redesign and vast expansion of the food-stamp program a few years later. However, the relation between rural and urban poverty reversed in the last part of the twentieth century. Between 1959 and 2009 , poverty outside metropolitan areas declined from 33.2 percent to 16.6 percent, while the principal city rate remained almost flat, 18.3 percent in 1959 and 18.7 percent in 2009 . Although rural poverty persisted, by the 1970s...

POVERTY

POVERTY   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
261 words

...poverty was considered a grave affliction, too much wealth was regarded as a danger and a temptation (cf. Dt . 8.11–18, 32.15); it was most desirable to achieve a mean between poverty and wealth. Nevertheless, occasionally the rabbis even praise poverty as a positive virtue. On the verse “I test you in the furnace of affliction” ( Is . 48.10), the Talmud comments, “This teaches that the Holy One, blessed be he, went through all the virtues in order to bestow them upon Israel and found none more becoming than poverty” ( Ḥag . 9b). This view of poverty as a...

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