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post-industrial city

A city exhibiting the characteristics of a post-industrial society. Service industries dominate with a strongly developed quaternary sector and footloose industries abound, often on ...

post-industrial city

post-industrial city   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...-industrial city A city exhibiting the characteristics of a post-industrial society . Service industries dominate with a strongly developed quaternary sector and footloose industries abound, often on pleasant open space at the edge of the city. Post-industrial cities are also characterized by large areas of office blocks and buildings for local government administration. These cities often exhibit marked inequality of income distribution because of the contrasts between those who are appropriately skilled—professionals, managers, administrators, and...

post-industrial city

post-industrial city  

A city exhibiting the characteristics of a post-industrial society. Service industries dominate with a strongly developed quaternary sector and footloose industries abound, often on pleasant open ...
Industrial History

Industrial History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,499 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...history, but now there is an awareness of the need to combine documentary research with the techniques of the archaeologist, particularly in the post‐medieval period. See David Crossley , Post‐Medieval Archaeology in Britain (1990) , for a general survey of the subject. The Society for Post‐Medieval Archaeology was founded in 1966 . Its journal, which is published twice a year, includes many articles on industrial history. Particular industries have been studied in depth over long periods of time at a regional level, especially the important woollen cloth...

Towns

Towns   Quick reference

David M. Palliser

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,140 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in an ancient cathedral city as in the East End of London. Indeed, until the 1870s death rates in York were worse than the national average; and some industrial towns had rates much worse than York's. Slums and overcrowding were an inevitable consequence of rapid and largely uncontrolled urban growth, especially in the industrial towns. Bradford, to take an extreme case, grew by 52 per cent in 1831–41 , by 55 per cent in 1841–51 , and by 34 per cent in 1861–71 . However, by the later 19th century such mushroom growth in the industrial towns was becoming the...

Consumerism

Consumerism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,809 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...argued that one major cause, and possibly the key cause, of the industrial revolution was the articulation of effective home consumer demand. Even if by the early Victorian age—arguably the peak decades of industrial transformation—economic dynamism was primarily associated with steam-powered factories and also with the pumping out of heavy industrial products and capital goods (coal, iron, steel, chemicals, steam engines, railways, ships, machine tools, and factory plant), the initial industrial quickening from around 1760 is said to have involved first and...

The Twentieth Century

The Twentieth Century   Quick reference

Brian M. Short

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,083 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is sometimes possible to examine rural land use on a field‐by‐field basis, though this cannot be predicted for any one area without consulting the relevant documents. It is also possible to study the industrial and commercial structure of towns and cities. The frequently detailed information regarding buildings and equipment enhances our knowledge of industrial, domestic, and other buildings which have since been demolished or heavily altered. Most of these topics can also be studied over time, and there are many possibilities for comparative work with other...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in economic history at Edinburgh University). James MacKinnon , Henry Hamilton , and Isabel F. Grant (also the author of marvellous books on Highland folk ways) contributed monographs. Post‐war leadership has come as much from Glasgow, through S. G. Checkland , Edgar Lythe , John Butt , R. H. Campbell , and Anthony Slaven , with Scotland's industrial economy finally taking its rightful place as a subject of study. The bias of Scottish historiography towards agrarian issues was remarked upon in 1983 , when G. Whittington and I. D. White in...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Ideas on Poor Relief, 1795–1834 , London, 1989; Winch, D. , Malthus , Oxford, 1987; The Secret Concatenation: Studies in the Intellectual History of Political Economy, 1750–1834 , Cambridge, 1996; Wrigley, E. A. , ‘The Classical Economists and the Industrial Revolution’, in his People, Cities and Wealth: The Transformation of Traditional Society , Oxford, 1987. Donald...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...First, these revisionists argue, it is misleading to see popular culture as fixed and homogeneous, whether in pre-industrial or modern forms. Rather, we should treat it as a fluid dialogical process, or at least as a field of study characterized by considerable pluralism arising from regional, sectional, and above all gender differences. Second, they argue, conventional bipolar divisions between élite and popular, polite and vulgar, or pre-industrial and modern tend to elide the considerable degree of cultural appropriation and exchange that took place among...

Labour History

Labour History   Quick reference

John L. Halstead

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,401 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...). It is clear that, in terms of class formation, the working class of the late 19th century became a different animal from that of the early period: it can be seen in residential patterns (on which relevant, if not conventional labour history, is Richard Dennis , English Industrial Cities of the Nineteenth Century: A Social Geography ( 1984 ), leisure activities (see, for example, Tony Mason , Association Football and English Society, 1863–1915 (1980) , and ‘culture’ (for an introduction, see Eric Hobsbawm, ‘The Formation of British Working‐Class...

Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...demonstration of the potential for understanding how the urban working classes were housed. James Ayres , Building the Georgian City ( 1998 ), explores the urban construction process at the point when new industrial methods were beginning to emerge, and Dan Cruickshank and Neil Burton , Life in the Georgian City ( 1990 ), provides a more general account of domestic conditions in the houses of the period. The planning of cities has usually been tightly controlled by either private landowners or public authorities, and the profound influence that this has...

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula   Reference library

María Luisa López-Vidriero

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,347 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...which, impelled by Catalonian industrial development, became a powerful urban printing centre during the 19 th century. Towards the end of the century, the indianos , or rich colonists returning from America, provided capital, brought new marketing techniques, and favoured the launch of a book industry that relied on the collaboration of the magnificent noucentisme artists. Espasa-Calpe, a remarkable Spanish publishing house that connects the 19 th and 20 th centuries, employed a business model favoured by industrial societies. Espasa, the family...

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World   Reference library

Heba Raouf Ezzat

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,961 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...actively engaged in promoting women's rights through the avenues of the cyberspace, while choosing to be a full time mother and housewife. This “access” and “empowerment” through post-industrial science and technology can spare the new generations of Arab women many debates and controversies and allow them to have different asymmetric and plural paths of modernization in a post-modern era than what conventionally was thought of by adopting a uni-linear notion of progress, development and suffrage that sees the empowerment of women in the light of the Western...

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... against evil is certainly regarded as a property of virginity in folk tales, while both witches and wise women tend to be old and thus post‐menopausal. It cannot be accidental that, in later folk tales, it is often a spayed bitch that is set to catch the witch transformed into a hare. In the case of males, while the erstwhile celibate status of the priesthood may partially explain the power ascribed to the clergy even in post‐Reformation times, it is also noticeable that wisemen were frequently single. Such ‘cunning men’, however, were simultaneously also...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

Vincent Giroud

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,215 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...woodcuts manufactured by Pellerin in Épinal not only remain forever associated with this Vosges city but also played a key role in the dissemination of the Napoleonic legend. Large printing plants flourished: Chaix in Paris, which prospered by printing *railway timetables ; or, in Tours, the equally famous Mame, specializing in religious literature, a field dominated by the figure of the Abbé *Migne . Another mark of progress was the birth of ‘industrial’ distribution methods, facilitated after 1840 by the spread of railways and the growth of modern...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,654 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...groups of proximate parishes. The drastic post‐medieval decline in village markets focused attendance alternatively on those fewer, often small, market towns—so often also the vehicles for Protestant preaching—that did survive the period of contraction. Craft regions surrounding other market centres ensured distinct geographical expressions of working culture, while the earlier stages of industrialization, at least, may well have intensified the regional observance of customary ways (see J. Langton , ‘The Industrial Revolution and the Regional Geography of...

Education

Education   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,295 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...This threat stimulated the Anglican squires of many a village to improve the educational opportunities of the poor by building or rebuilding a National school before the local board could take responsibility. In the largest cities splendid Victorian Gothic board schools were erected to cater for over 1 000 pupils each; in these cities and in many a smaller settlement the board school remains in use to this day. Equally importantly, all schools were subject to government inspection to ensure adequate standards, and once schools were provided attendance was...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

Leslie Howsam

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,084 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...that was enormously influential in the print culture of Victorian Britain. Periodicals arrived through the *postal system , or were purchased alongside books or newspapers. Books could also be ordered from the publisher (or the circulating library) to be delivered by post to the country; cities and provincial towns had bookshops, where sellers were entitled to discounts on set prices. In the earlier decades of the 19 th century, street vendors supplemented the established shops, particularly for politically radical pamphlets and evangelical tracts. In rural...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...with France put an end to prestigious government projects, especially in London. One exception was Soane's dramatic expansion of the Bank of England ( 1788–1833 ), which added new offices for the administration of the *national debt and paper money supply. For commercial and industrial architecture the war posed no impediment: new docks, warehouses, exchanges, markets, customs houses, mills, foundries, warehouses, and *factories were built throughout the country. Socially, the war years had two distinct consequences for architecture. On the one hand, the...

Kinship and Kingship: The Early Monarchy

Kinship and Kingship: The Early Monarchy   Reference library

Carol Meyers

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
20,793 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...on the sites of the old Bronze Age cities, although a few represent the continuation of Iron I village sites. The Iron II cities in some ways continue the Bronze Age urban traditions in their layout and location. But differences in size and in internal building types are indicative of a nation-state, rather than of the autonomous city-states of the Bronze Age. As a whole, the Iron IIA cities—even major royal centers such as Gezer, Hazor, and Megiddo—are smaller than their Bronze Age precursors. Other cities were even smaller, with differing...

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