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Overview

positivist school of criminology

Subject: Law

One of the two major schools of criminology. In contrast to the classical school, which assumes that criminal acts are the product of free choice and rational calculation, the positivist ...

positivist school of criminology

positivist school of criminology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Law
Length:
265 words

... school of criminology One of the two major schools of criminology . In contrast to the classical school , which assumes that criminal acts are the product of free choice and rational calculation, the positivist sees the root causes of crime in factors outside the control of the offender. These are to be identified using empirical methods, in particular the analysis of statistics. The earliest form of positivism, which arose in the late 19th century, involved an attempt to correlate criminal behaviour with certain physiological traits. This led to the...

positivist school of criminology

positivist school of criminology  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
One of the two major schools of criminology. In contrast to the classical school, which assumes that criminal acts are the product of free choice and rational calculation, the positivist sees the ...
classical school of criminology

classical school of criminology  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
One of the two major schools of criminology. Originating in the 18th century and rooted in philosophical utilitarianism, it sees man as a rational self-seeking being whose acts are freely chosen. ...
criminology

criminology  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
N.The study of crime. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field that combines aspects of legal theory and the substantive legal disciplines with approaches based on psychology, sociology, and moral ...
Arnold M. Rose

Arnold M. Rose  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1918–68)An American sociologist, a somewhat eclectic symbolic interactionist who adopted an intermediate position between the humanistic approach of the Chicago School, and the more positivist ...
Chicago School

Chicago School   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Law
Length:
14 words

...School 1. See economic analysis of law . 2. See positivist school of criminology...

criminology

criminology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Law
Length:
157 words

... n. The study of crime. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field that combines aspects of legal theory and the substantive legal disciplines with approaches based on psychology, sociology, and moral philosophy. Its subjects include the nature and definition of crime, its forms and incidence, its causes, and crime prevention. Historically, two main approaches have dominated, the classical school and the positivist school. The classical school of criminology emphasizes the role of free will and rational choice in criminal behaviour and the use of...

classical school of criminology

classical school of criminology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Law
Length:
185 words

...certain, and proportionate to the offence. From the late 19th century the classical school was challenged by the positivist school of criminology , which downplays the role of free will and emphasizes the various social and psychological forces that may drive an individual to crime. More recently, aspects of the classical approach have been revived in so-called rational choice theory , which highlights the opportunistic element in many crimes and stresses the role of surveillance and environmental design (e.g. better street lighting) in crime...

criminology, positivist

criminology, positivist   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
275 words

..., positivist A term applied—often by critics—to criminology committed to the practical application of theory and research, that claims scientific status for its quantitative methodology, and that looks for the determining causes of crime and misbehaviour, which are held to be discoverable in the physical, genetic, psychological, or moral make-up of those pre-disposed to such acts. Hypothesis-testing, empirical investigation, classification, and categorization are its hallmarks. This perspective developed as a reaction to the view of classical...

Queering Criminology Globally

Queering Criminology Globally   Reference library

Matthew Ball

The Oxford Encyclopedia of International Criminology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
12,959 words

...that “the role of criminology and crime researchers in defining the boundaries of [the] homo/hetero divide in modern culture and academic discourse, and their relationship to homophobic oppression in the twentieth century,” needed further exploration. To begin this, he offered a queer way of reading criminology’s origin stories, particularly the significant focus of Lombrosian criminological schools of thought on examining the bodies of young men in detail. Furthermore, Groombridge ( 1999 , p. 533) suggested that a queered criminology would not simply...

Cultural Bias in International Criminology

Cultural Bias in International Criminology   Reference library

René van Swaaningen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of International Criminology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
9,396 words

...repression began to play an increasingly central role in Latin American criminology by the late 1980s. Yet as Melossi et al. ( 2011 , p. 6) nicely put it: “Despite all this, English-language criminology has in the main remained blissfully unaware of the content, scope, and even of the existence, of scholarly communities working in … other languages.” After questioning why the European criminological tradition from mainly Lombroso’s positivist school and Von Liszt’s Marburg program of “social defense” had been implemented in such an authoritarian and...

Italian philosophy

Italian philosophy   Reference library

Richard Bellamy

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
863 words

...) and Roberto Ardigo ( 1828–1920 ). The first drew on the reformers of the Milanese Enlightenment, Vico and Comte , and urged the need for philosophy to adopt the methods of the natural sciences and develop into a social science. Ardigo , a former priest, became the apostle of a theistic Newtonianism, in which the same mechanistic ‘forces’ explained all physical and psychical phenomena. In the twentieth century, positivist thinking was continued by the Italian school of criminology, particularly Cesare Lombroso ( 1835–1909 ) and Enrico Ferri (...

International Cultural Criminology

International Cultural Criminology   Reference library

Eleni Dimou

The Oxford Encyclopedia of International Criminology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
14,739 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Following U.S. subcultural theory, the roots of what became CC stemmed from social theorists who, during the 1930s to 1970s in the United States, endeavored to understand and give meaning to acts that were perceived to be irrational, meaningless, and transgressive ( Ferrell, 2013 ). This branch of subcultural theory sought to give a voice to the actual actors of deviant activities, which were usually depicted as pathological, while being silenced and transformed into numbers by conventional positivist criminology ( Young, 2011 ). As such, its main endeavor...

criminological research

criminological research   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,194 words

...a wide range of alternative explanations of crime emerged, largely as a result of scientific developments. The ‘positivist schoolof criminology focused on the pathology of offenders as a distinct group, and emphasized the importance of empirical research (although much of the methodology would now be regarded as suspect). Early theories proposed that criminals differed from the law‐abiding in having different head shapes, or body types, and later theories suggested that offenders had distinct chromosomal differences, anti‐social personalities, or mental...

Foucault and the Visual Reconstitution of Criminological Knowledge

Foucault and the Visual Reconstitution of Criminological Knowledge   Reference library

Stephen Pfohl

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
13,039 words

...bodies, and behavior of those that it analyzes. During the heyday of classical criminology, which was also the heyday of early modern capital and colonial conquest, Beccaria and Bentham envisioned a world where the rational power of signs would deter potential wrongdoers from violating the law, but confined within the penal system imagined by Beccaria and Bentham, de Sade’s fictive imagination exceeded that of classical criminology. So did the positivist criminology that took their inspiration from the visual control technologies of the prison. The Marquis...

Colonialism, Crime, and Social Control

Colonialism, Crime, and Social Control   Reference library

Viviane Saleh-Hanna

The Oxford Encyclopedia of International Criminology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
12,934 words

...without positivist criminology’s categorical binaries and interpretations of society and the human body; (b) without classical criminology’s institutionalization of social control through fear (aka deterrence) as justice; and (c) accounting for the fact that both schools of thought were produced from within white supremacy’s overarching segregated hierarchies of human groupings, the very concept of crime, or “the crime-concept” as it is constructed by colonizing institutions and cultures, would fail as a mechanism that orients public perceptions of danger and...

Narrative Criminology: Crime as Produced by and RE-LIVED Through Narratives

Narrative Criminology: Crime as Produced by and RE-LIVED Through Narratives   Reference library

Alfredo Verde

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
13,005 words

...substantial emptiness was psychoanalysis, in its non-positivist version, which enabled us to discern inner narratives of which the subject is unaware and that can only be recounted through meeting with another person who enters with him into a relationship of friendship, love, or therapy. Here, important bonds can be forged with other currents of criminology. Subjects’ narratives provide an access to the individual’s interior and historical dimension. In this regard, the psychosocial criminology of Gadd and Jefferson ( 2007 ) (and psychosocial studies...

Visuality and Criminology

Visuality and Criminology   Reference library

Judah Schept

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
11,928 words

...of prediction and risk we should see the further calcification of visuality’s processes of naming, categorizing, and classifying. Young, one of the fiercer critics of criminology from within, argues persuasively: “The war against crime, drugs, terrorism, demands facts, numbers, quantitative incomes and outcomes—it does not demand debates as to the very nature of these battles, it does not want to question definition, rather it wants ‘hard’ facts and ‘concrete’ evidence” ( 2011 , p. 23). He continues, observing that the elective affinity between positivist...

Law in Context movement

Law in Context movement   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,397 words

...Belfast, broadened their curricula; three series of books entitled ‘Law in Context’, ‘Law in Society’, and ‘Law and Society’ were launched; The British Journal of Law and Society (later the Journal of Law and Society ) began in 1974 , and the Socio‐Legal Studies Association emerged in the early 1970s. The Institute of Judicial Administration in Birmingham ( 1968 ) and the Oxford Centre for Socio‐Legal Studies ( 1972 ) joined the Cambridge Institute of Criminology ( 1959 ) as significant centres of empirical research. The Law in Context movement was...

Framing Terrorism

Framing Terrorism   Reference library

Alexandra Campbell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
13,141 words

...forms of criminology tend to treat “terrorism” as an objective phenomenon to be mapped, explained, and managed. This positivist approach mirrors criminology’s broad orientation to address crime in general as a fixed category. Scholars informed by more critical strains of the discipline, however, argue that this managerial approach is reductive and uncritical in its use of highly contingent definitions of crime (here “terrorism”). These meanings largely reflect agendas of powerful institutions, and when treated as fixed facts by researchers, criminology reifies...

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