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Portugal

Subject: History

Political stability and EU membership have stimulated development Portugal's major river, the Tagus, flows across the country from east to west, reaching the Atlantic ocean at ...

Portuguese

Portuguese   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
45 words

... National language of both Portugal and Brazil, spoken by c .10 million people in Portugal and 100 million in Brazil. In addition, another 15 million people speak it in Angola, Mozambique, and other former Portuguese colonies. A Romance language , it is closely related to...

Portuguese

Portuguese   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
75 words

... Romance , spoken mainly in Brazil and Portugal but also as a second language, with official status, in Angola, Mozambique, and other former Portuguese colonies. Historically related to Galician in north-west Spain; a national language after the independence of Portugal in the 12th century; carried to Brazil, Africa, and the Far East by trade and colonization in the 16th. European and Brazilian Portuguese are now distinct varieties of what is still a common...

Portuguese

Portuguese   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Portuguese . A Romance language of Western Europe, closely related to spanish and the earliest of the major colonial languages originating in Europe. There are approximately 215m native speakers worldwide. In Europe, as the national language of Portugal (including the Azores and Madeira, islands in the Atlantic); in the Americas, as the official language of Brazil; in Africa, as the official language of Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and Saõ Tomé and Príncipe; in Asia, as the official language of the Portuguese colony of Macao, near Hong...

PORTUGUESE

PORTUGUESE   Reference library

Fernando Santoro

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
6,093 words

... Les sermons de Vieira ) Portuguese occults words and even whole phrases by means of ellipses, the supreme figures of the baroque, often indicated by a series commas. It hides still more: sometimes, the whole conclusion of an idea is left up to the reader by the abundant use of ellipsis points. Skepticism? Insinuation? Esotericism? It is up to the reader to decide. Consider this bilingual title of André Coyné’s bilingual book, Portugal è um ente … De l’être du Portugal (Portugal is an existent … On the being of Portugal), whose punctuation conceals...

Portuguese

Portuguese   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,679 words
Illustration(s):
1

... . A member of the Romance family of languages, Portuguese was originally the dialect of the county of Portugal in the Kingdom of Galicia; it achieved linguistic independence when Portugal became a separate kingdom in the 12th century. Galicia became progressively subordinated to Castile, although cultural and linguistic links between Galicia and Portugal remained very close up to the mid-14th century, when Galician-Portuguese was the favored language of Spanish lyric poetry. (For reference, see Williams 1962 , Vázquez Cuesta and Luz 1971 , Câmara ...

Portuguese Africa

Portuguese Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

... Africa consisted of Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique) and the Portuguese West African colonies of Cabinda, Angola, São Tomé, and Portuguese Guinea, which, with Portugal, remained neutral. Portuguese East Africa was, for part of the war, a base for German agents working in South Africa ( see Ossewabrandwag...

Inquisition, Portuguese

Inquisition, Portuguese   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
210 words

...(which appointed the inquisitors-general nominated by the kings of Portugal) and of the nobility. After 1580 , when Portugal was annexed by Spain, the Portuguese Inquisition was replaced by the Spanish Inquisition. The Portuguese Inquisition was chiefly used for the persecution and prosecution of marranos . The number of marranos grew after the forced conversion of all Portuguese Jews in 1497 , but the introduction of the Inquisition into Portugal in 1536 caused the number of Portuguese marranos to fall, because thousands of families were assured that...

Portuguese Language

Portuguese Language   Reference library

Kim Richardson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
632 words

...seaborne empire. Among Portugal and its former territories, the following countries claim Portuguese as their official language: Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe, and East Timor. During the eighteenth century many Portuguese speakers, especially from Brazil, began attending school either at Coimbra in Portugal or in France. The French language became especially influential in the formation of modern Portuguese. However, by the Napoleonic period at the turn of the nineteenth century, Portugal had become more...

Portuguese language

Portuguese language   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
276 words

... language . For centuries Arabic enjoyed an important linguistic presence in Portugal, but in early modern Portugal the hegemony of Portuguese Romance was challenged only by the fashion for the Spanish language in the Portuguese court, an anomaly which means that some of the finest Portuguese literature is written in Spanish. A language closely related to Portuguese was (and is) also spoken in the kingdom (now province) of Galicia (and in the Bierzo district of León), where it is known as Galician or Galego. Portuguese was carried around the world...

Portuguese music

Portuguese music   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... music Thrived under John I who maintained a court ensemble for ceremonial occasions. Portuguese composers of the sixteenth century include Damião de Goes ( 1501–74 ), Cosme Delgado ( c. 1530–1596 ), and Manuel Mendes ( c. 1550–1605 ). Portuguese polyphony flourished in the early seventeenth century with the school of Évora, including Duarte Lobo ( c. 1565–1646 ), Manuel Cardoso ( 1571–1650 ), and King John IV ( 1604–56 ), who composed sacred music and whose library was destroyed by the 1755 earthquake. Portuguese organ music is...

Portuguese discovery

Portuguese discovery   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
235 words

...to an early Portuguese presence in Australia include cannons found on an island off WA, and the lost Mahogany Ship , reputedly a Portuguese caravel wrecked near Warrnambool, Victoria, under the command of Christóvão de Mendonça . Several symposia held at Warrnambool in the 1980s and 1990s failed to find conclusive evidence for Portuguese discovery, but popular interest in the theory persists. A memorial to the perhaps mythical Portuguese sailors was erected near the beach at Warrnambool in the 1980s and the city also holds an annual Portuguese festival....

Portuguese missions

Portuguese missions   Reference library

Jesudas Athyal

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
611 words

... missions Portuguese Christian missionary work around the world was intertwined with the colonial and commercial aspirations of Portugal. The Portuguese pioneered the first missionary ventures into the W. coast of Africa in the 15th cent. Henry the Navigator, the prince of Portugal at that time, attempted to open business routes into Africa and spread the Christian gospel there. A primary concern of the Portuguese was to counter the growing influence of Islam in commerce and the propagation of religion in Africa and replace them with a trading...

Portuguese art

Portuguese art   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
522 words

...Portuguese sculptors (of Castilian extraction) João and Diogo Castilho . Their sculptures, which were avowedly Italianate and erudite, created a distinctive style of sculpture in Coimbra and thence throughout Portugal. The annexation of Portugal by Spain in 1580 shifted the centre of art to Madrid, so the finest Portuguese sculptor of the seventeenth century, Manuel Pereira , worked principally in Spain. The Dictionary of Art ; R. G. Smith , The Art of Portugal, 1500–1800 (1968); G. Kubler and M. Soria , Art and Architecture in Spain and Portugal...

Portuguese architecture

Portuguese architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
359 words

...the façade, the Chapel of John I , and vaults for the cloister and the chapter house. In the 1490s the late Gothic idiom reached its zenith in the first distinctly Portuguese architectural style, the Manueline , which was a Portuguese version of the Plateresque in which mudéjar design inspired structures as well as decorations and so facilitated a totality of design that was uniquely Portuguese. The influence of Renaissance Italian architecture is most magnificently evident in the Claustro dos Felipes in the Convento de Cristo in Tomar; this large...

languages: Portuguese

languages: Portuguese   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
313 words

...Portuguese The linguistic history of what was to become Portugal is at first inseparable from that of the rest of the Peninsula: the creation of new dialects by settlers of varied origins (in this case predominantly from *Galicia and Portugal north of the Doiro) in the wake of the gradual reconquest of the western coastal regions from Islamic Spain (Coimbra 1064 , *Lisbon 1147 , Évora 1165 , Faro 1249 ). Independence from *León ( 1128 ) was achieved during this process, separating Portugal politically, but not linguistically, from Galicia:...

Portuguese literature

Portuguese literature   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
389 words

... literature . The courts of John I and his sons Duarte and Dom Pedro were the focus of early Renaissance literature in Portugal; they collected humanist manuscripts, commissioned translations of classical works into Portuguese, and wrote moral treatises themselves. The distinguished royal chroniclers of the fifteenth century include Fernão Lopes (who was famously described by Southey as the best chronicler of any age or nation), Gomes Eanes de Azurara (who described the capture of Ceuta and the African explorations of Henry the Navigator ), ...

Portuguese empire

Portuguese empire   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
256 words

... empire The overseas territories accruing to Portugal as a result of the country’s leadership of the first phase of European overseas expansion, beginning in the 15th century. Portuguese imperialism was stimulated by a scientific interest in maritime exploration, a desire to profit from the spice trade of the Orient, and a determination to spread the Christian religion in non-Christian lands. By about 1530 the Portuguese empire included the islands of Cape Verde, Madeira, and the Azores, a large part of Brazil , fortress settlements in East and...

Portuguese garden

Portuguese garden   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Architecture (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
223 words

... garden Influenced by Roman , Moorish , and medieval garden-design, Portugal’s eclectic blend of foreign influences, combined with a climate favourable to the cultivation of gardens, led to some remarkably beautiful creations. The C16 Quinta da Bacalhôa , with its azulejos and huge water-tank, demonstrates the survival of Islamic design mingled with themes of the Italian Renaissance . Trade with Japan also impinged to a certain extent on C16 garden-design. At Bom Jesus do Monte , near Braga, is an astonishing Baroque stair (C18); at...

Portuguese art

Portuguese art   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,070 words

...many gifted artists have graduated to become respected practitioners, though no 20th-century Portuguese-born artist except Maria Helena Vieira da Silva has achieved a worldwide reputation. John Bernard Bury Bury, J. B. , ‘Introduction to the Art and Architecture of Portugal’, in Blue Guide Portugal (4th edn., 1996). França, J. A. , Morales, J. L. , and García, W. R. , Arte portugués , Summa Artis XXX (1986). Smith, R. C. , The Art of Portugal 1500–1800 ...

Portuguese gardens

Portuguese gardens   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
758 words

...combination of azulejos and water-tanks was uniquely Portuguese. Arab architecture had traditionally used still water to reflect clouds and trees. The Portuguese water-tank achieves a similar effect by setting azulejos above the stone sides of the water-tank, so that the water is reflected in the shimmering blues, purples, yellows, greens, and oranges of the azulejos . And just as rich surface decoration in mosaic is an important element in Islamic architecture, so the constructed elements in Portuguese gardens ( pavilions , fountains, grottoes, loggias)...

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