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porcelain

Dental porcelain consists mainly of silica (silicon dioxide, SiO2), potassium, and sodium feldspar. Some of the newer porcelains contain aluminium oxide (alumina), zirconium oxide ...

porcelain

porcelain   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
140 words

... , A hard white translucent pottery , distinguished by the temperature of the firing into hard-paste porcelain ( pâte dure ) and soft-paste porcelain ( pâte tendre ). Hard-paste porcelain has been manufactured in China since the ninth century; Chinese hard-paste porcelain was imported into sixteenth-century Europe by Portuguese and Dutch merchants, but the technique was not rediscovered in Europe until the first decade of the eighteenth century. Soft-paste porcelain, which is fired at a lower temperature and is not as resonant when struck, may have been...

porcelain

porcelain   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
71 words

... White, glass-like, non-porous, hard, translucent ceramic . Porcelain is used for tableware, decorative objects, laboratory equipment, and electrical insulators. It was developed by the Chinese in the 7th or 8th century. True or hard-paste porcelain is made of kaolin (white china clay) mixed with powdered petuntse ( feldspar ) fired at about 1,400°C (2,550°F). Soft-paste porcelain is made of clay and powdered glass, fired at a low temperature, lead glazed, and...

porcelain

porcelain   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
21 words

... [Ma] A fine form of pottery which is fired to a very high temperature in order to vitrify the...

porcelain

porcelain n.((in dentistry))   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (9 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
17 words

... n. (in dentistry) a ceramic material that is used to construct tooth-coloured crowns, inlays, or...

porcelain

porcelain   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
275 words

... A hard, white, translucent ceramic body , which is fired to a high temperature in a kiln to vitrify it. It is normally covered with a glaze and decorated, under the glaze (usually in cobalt), or, after the first firing, over the glaze with enamel colours. If left unglazed it is called biscuit porcelain. It is usually divided into two types, hard-paste , or true porcelain, and soft-paste , or artificial porcelain. True porcelain was first made by the Chinese in the 7th or 8th century ad , using kaolin (china clay) and petuntse (china...

Porcelain

Porcelain   Reference library

OOI Giok Ling

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...to Europe Porcelain came to be called “china” because it originated in China; china was first taken to Europe during the twelfth century. Portuguese traders began importing china in the sixteenth century. The Portuguese introduced the term porcelain sometime between then and the beginning of porcelain manufacture in Europe in the late eighteenth century. The terms china and porcelain are used interchangeably today, although some people use the term china to refer to figurines and items for use with meals and use the term porcelain to refer to a...

Porcelain

Porcelain   Reference library

Robert FINLAY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
964 words

...and porcelain by the Tang ( 618–907 ce ). During the Song dynasty ( 960–1279 ), artisans at Jingdezhen in Jiangxi Province created a superior form of porcelain, made by combining kaolin and porcelain stone. China had a monopoly on porcelain for a thousand years, until the Meissen manufactory of Augustus II ( 1670–1733 ), elector of Saxony and king of Poland, turned out a close facsimile in 1708 . Indeed, the success of Chinese porcelain closely tracks that of China’s economy and China’s international reputation. Triumphant for a millennium, porcelain,...

Porcelain

Porcelain   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
392 words
Illustration(s):
1

...but not necessarily, translucent. Although normally glazed, hard-paste porcelain, like stoneware, is sometimes left unglazed to expose a fine, satiny surface. Among the most well-known attempts to imitate hard-paste porcelains are soft-paste ( pâte tendre ) porcelains, produced in Europe from a wide range of formulae. Soft-paste porcelain contains pale clays and a glassy frit with little or no kaolin. It is characteristically opaque, with a soft, sometimes milky appearance. This porcelain fires at a lower temperature than hard paste, usually below 1300°C....

porcelain

porcelain n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Dentistry

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Medicine and health, Dentistry
Length:
92 words

... n. Dental porcelain consists mainly of silica (silicon dioxide, SiO 2 ), potassium, and sodium feldspar . Some of the newer porcelains contain aluminium oxide ( alumina ), zirconium oxide (zirconia), or magnesium aluminium oxide (spinelle) as the main components. Porcelain can be classified according to fusion temperature: high fusing (1300°C), used for the manufacture of denture teeth; medium fusing ( 1101–1300 °C), used for porcelain jacket crowns and inlays; low fusing (850–1100°C), used for metal ceramic and porcelain jacket crowns, inlays,...

Porcelain

Porcelain   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... The word comes from Italian porcellana , ‘cowrie shell’, referring to the ceramic material’s pale and glossy shell-like finish. This word itself is the adjective of porcella , ‘little sow’, the allusion apparently being to the curve in a pig’s back and to its similar colour. Drive the porcelain bus, To See under drive...

Armorial porcelain

Armorial porcelain   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
40 words

...porcelain . Porcelain bearing heraldic arms, often used to denote porcelain with coats of arms imported into Europe and the USA from China from the late 18th century to the early 20th. D. S. Howard : Chinese Armorial Porcelain (London,...

Coalport porcelain

Coalport porcelain   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
35 words

...porcelain Porcelain produced by the Coalport factory in Shropshire, founded by John Rose in 1796 . During the 19th century the factory became famous for elaborate porcelain encrusted with delicate flowers, known as...

porcelain enamel

porcelain enamel   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... enamel An inorganic coating bonded to metal by the fusion...

Etoilles Porcelain

Etoilles Porcelain   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
30 words

...Porcelain . Small French porcelain factory established near Paris in 1768 . An example of its wares is the Louis XV écuelle dish now in the Bowes Museum in Barnard...

Limoges porcelain

Limoges porcelain   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
83 words

...porcelain Limoges has been the main area for porcelain production in France since the 18th century, when the ingredients for making hard-paste porcelain, kaolin and petuntse , were discovered nearby in 1768 . Porcelain began to be made in the town, and for a short while plain white wares were supplied for decoration at the Sèvres factory. After the French Revolution a number of factories were established and Limoges remains the most important area for porcelain in France...

porcelain room

porcelain room   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
72 words

... room A room, common in palaces throughout Europe from the middle of the 18th century, to display a porcelain collection, or, more unusually, made of porcelain. The Museum für Angewandte Kunst in Vienna has a room from the Dubsky Palace in which the chandelier, sconces , and chimney piece are all of Vienna (du Paquier) porcelain and the walls, mirrors, and furniture are inset with porcelain plaques of 1725–35...

Lowestoft porcelain

Lowestoft porcelain   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
61 words

...porcelain The porcelain factory founded c .1757 in the small Suffolk fishing port of Lowestoft. It first produced blue and white wares, then pieces decorated in the Chinese export porcelain style in the famille rose palette. Although a long way from the fashionable marketplaces and out of touch with changing tastes, the factory survived nearly fifty...

Samson porcelain

Samson porcelain   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
52 words

...porcelain A French porcelain factory, established by Edmé Samson in Paris in 1845 , which produced high quality copies of every kind of porcelain, including Meissen , Chantilly , Chelsea , Derby , and Chinese. These reproductions were created with great skill and can be difficult to distinguish from the...

Belleek porcelain

Belleek porcelain   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
40 words

...porcelain A porcelain factory founded in 1857 in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, which produced a very light, translucent body covered with an iridescent glaze. It manufactured small, ornate objects as well as elaborated baskets and decorative...

Jesuit porcelain

Jesuit porcelain   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
71 words

...porcelain . Chinese porcelain made for export to the West in the 18th century. The monochrome decorations depicted Christian subjects such as the nativity and crucifixion. There is no evidence that the porcelain was commissioned by the Jesuits, but the European engravings on which the decorations were based may have been brought to China by Jesuit missionaries. The Religious Missions and Art, Orient. A ., xlvii/5 (2001), pp. 2–54 [special...

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