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popular education

Unlike Scotland, which in our period already possessed nearly universal basic education through its parochial school system, and Ireland, where fears of the spread of Catholic education ...

popular education

popular education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
1,000 words

... education . Unlike Scotland, which in our period already possessed nearly universal basic education through its parochial school system, and Ireland, where fears of the spread of Catholic education impelled the *Whig government to institute in 1831 a massive scheme of elementary national education, England and Wales continued to proffer a diverse non-governmental patchwork of popular educational programmes [ see *education, 17 ]. A parliamentary committee survey of England and Wales in 1819 counted 4,176 endowed schools (700 of them grammar schools...

popular education

popular education  

Unlike Scotland, which in our period already possessed nearly universal basic education through its parochial school system, and Ireland, where fears of the spread of Catholic education impelled the ...
Education

Education   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,295 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...had the means to support him. See David Cressy , Literacy and the Social Order: Reading and Writing in Tudor and Stuart England (1980) , Margaret Spufford , Small Books and Pleasant Histories: Popular Fiction and its Readership in Seventeenth‐Century England (1981) , ch. 2, Rosemary O’Day , Education and Society, 1500–1800: The Social Foundations of Education in Early Modern England (1982) , and Adam Fox , Oral and Literate Culture in England, 1500–1700 (2000). In Wales, too, the provision of grammar and other schools was generous in the second half...

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Anglican establishment become so exercised in the matter of popular education. It set up the ‘National Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor in the Principles of the Established Church’ as a direct counter to the Lancaster faction's promotional organization, which became known as the ‘British and Foreign School Society’. There are grounds for arguing, however, that the rivalry of these two bodies, and of the forces they represented, did as much to impede as to aid the spread of education through the British nation at large. It was a deadlock between...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Culture Modern studies tend to find popular culture an elusive concept, though there is rough agreement that it encompasses the common people's world of work, attitudes to the natural world, education, literacy and knowledge, health practices, gender and generational roles, religious beliefs, recreational and leisure pursuits, and community customs. Since the 1960s historians have also tended to advance two overarching theses about popular culture in the Romantic age: first, they have contended that a long-term process of polarization between élite and...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,654 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...lower‐middle‐class homes with more rooms and, eventually, artificial lighting. In a parallel process of interiorization, if both †education and literacy (and thus consequently the sequential mode of reading) expanded hugely, the utility of visual metaphor, verbal imagery, and hence lateral skills of association probably dwindled, but in more complex ways than we had formerly suspected (see David Vincent , Literacy and Popular Culture: England 1750–1914 (1989) ). Public as opposed to family ritual was replaced by commercialized recreation (see James...

Novels

Novels   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,137 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... *Literary and philosophical societies established in the second half of the eighteenth century commonly restricted their stock of light works such as novels, as did the Mechanics' Institutes set up to provide informative reading for the labouring classes [ see *popular education ]. (The revolution by which novels encroached upon the status of ‘informative reading’ is one of the important shifts effected by Romantic period novelists.) In contrast, circulating libraries were well stocked with novels; some, notably William Lane 's *Minerva Press and...

Dialect

Dialect   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,463 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the English language regional dialects have become less important as more and more speakers have learned to speak standard English, but class dialects have, for good or ill, become more important.” G.L. Brook , A History of the English Language 14 ( 1958 ). Because education typically entails the inculcation of standard language (as a result of both classroom learning and peer pressure, often more strongly the latter), what results is often a type of bidialectalism. As Otto Jespersen , one of the great linguists, put it: “People whose minds are...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...other amenities, and a growing eagerness to participate in public life. There were clubs to promote knowledge and education, reading and *debating , and to protect the interests of small employers and working men. By the 1820s, a few ‘labour exchanges’ even existed where workers exchanged the products they had made, and there were also a few co-operative communities where families shared possessions and worked together as a unit. The most popular and widespread voluntary associations were the working-class *friendly societies . *Trade unions (illegal from ...

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,365 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...developed this method of research. Their classes, and others that have followed them, have published some first‐rate work. Group research has proved far more popular and productive with local history classes than with any other subject. See Joan Unwin , ‘ Local History Group Research Projects in Adult Continuing Education ’, Local Historian , 24/1 (1994) . Local history has also proved a popular choice for part‐time qualification courses leading to a university certificate or a BA or MA degree. Local studies have increasingly formed the basis of M.Phil....

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...It may well be that the majority of novels published between 1692 and the end of the eighteenth century were written by women. The feminization of the popular novel reflects the relative openness and non-traditional nature of the form, ‘hedged round by no learned traditions, based on no formal techniques’. Anna Laetitia *Barbauld suggested in ‘On Romances’ ( 1773 ) that sentimental fiction was popular because ‘few can reason, but all can feel’. Here, she said, was illimitable potential: ‘Sorrow is universally felt.’ Debarred from the educational...

Language

Language   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Lowth and transmitted through popular texts like Murray's grammar. If modern historians of nationalism are right to suggest that the period ended with an expanded notion of who constituted the nation, one of the prices of entry was conformity to an image of the language which depended on a very restricted definition of ‘usage’. Barrell, J. , ‘The Language Properly So-Called: The Authority of Common Usage’, in his English Literature in History 1730–80: An Equal Wide Survey , 1983; Barry, J. , ‘Literacy and Literature in Popular Culture: Reading and Writing in...

Etymology

Etymology   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,700 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...haven't fared so well: for example, excidion (= a rooting out), exercite (= army), magistration (= a command). Another early word-borrower, Thomas Elyot , wrote in the early 16th century. Like Caxton, Elyot had his word-coining successes ( animate , attraction , education , excrement , exterior , frugality , irritate , persist ) and his failures ( allective , applicate , assentatour ). In that respect, these writers are typical of the age. Some coinages from that period seem to have arisen not from any felt need but from a particular...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...), The Commonwealth of Reason ( 1795 ). This takes ‘corruption’ to be ‘the most dreadful evil that can possibly affect either public or private life’, and offers a plan of social and constitutional reforms, including ensuring popular sovereignty, political rotation, freedom of religion, speech, and writing, the creation of a popular militia, and the provision of a minimum wage. Godwin's ideas were diffused in utopian form in a work by the liberal intellectual Thomas Northmore ( 1766–1851 ). Northmore 's Memoirs of Planetes, or A Sketch of the Laws and...

Irish Local and Family History

Irish Local and Family History   Quick reference

Kevin Whelan

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,945 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of Irish history assumed a heavily politicized dimension; the emphasis shifted to creating an old history for a new state, to moulding a shared nationalist inheritance that would bind its citizenry together. In these circumstances, little encouragement was given in government, education, or professional circles to local history. In response to the resurgence of political violence in Northern Ireland after 1969 , a new wave of Irish history writing—known as revisionism—gained popularity. Revisionism attacked the nationalist bias of the prevailing historical...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Society, initially born of religious dissent and social upheaval during the 1830s, but later redirected at the Crystal Palace Handel Festival of 1857 . Meanwhile music tuition was becoming more widely available through Mechanics' Institutes and singing classes [ see *popular education ]. Britain's contribution to the early Romantic movement in music was reluctant and patchy: indeed in some ways the country remained a sceptical outsider, looking in on continental developments. An important indigenous Romantic tradition was, however, represented by the...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...zeal, Anglican and Wesleyan officials in south Lancashire joined in the Home Office Secretary Lord Sidmouth's postwar drive to silence popular unrest by hounding suspected radicals out of their worship and their Sunday schools. While the multi-faceted drive by the postwar Tory government to stifle popular political expression and participation pushed a minority of working people into the camp of infidelism or the popular political freethought espoused by leaders like Richard Carlile, it also provoked radical Christians to spell out a counter-Christianity: a...

Welsh Local and Family History

Welsh Local and Family History   Quick reference

D. Huw Owen

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,425 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...published H. Carter (ed.), The National Atlas of Wales ( 1988 ). The University has encouraged and fostered adult education, and local history has featured prominently in the subjects studied by classes organized by departments of extramural studies or departments of continuing education of the constituent colleges. The Workers’ Educational Association ( WEA ), the voluntary organization designated as a provider of adult education, has also promoted the study of local history in many localities. Four lectures delivered under the auspices of the WEA in...

The Antiquarian Tradition

The Antiquarian Tradition   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,837 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...research, especially after the opening of Sir Thomas Bodley 's library in 1602 . Groups of like‐minded scholars also gathered at the University of Cambridge and at the Inns of Court . The Inns provided not only a practical training in the law, but also a general humanistic education. Many a future writer had his interests awakened as a young man at one of the universities or Inns. The Elizabethan antiquaries had employed a multi‐disciplinary approach to their studies, using whatever material was available. Although they turned to written records such as ...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...thoughts, and extend the views of the spectator’. As well as offering a morally and culturally elevated position for the modern artist, the Discourses sought to define a proper public for painting in Britain. This public was imagined as a body of cultivated gentlemen whose education and leisure allowed them to interpret and appreciate successfully the exemplary subjects of grand history paintings. Through both intellectual and financial *patronage this constituency would guarantee the future growth of a specifically British school of history painting. And...

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