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point-block

High apartment-building with the circulation and services in the central core and the residential areas grouped around it on several storeys. See also tower-block.

point-block

point-block   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Architecture (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
24 words

...-block High apartment-building with the circulation and services in the central core and the residential areas grouped around it on several storeys. See tower-block...

point-block

point-block  

Reference type:
Overview Page
High apartment-building with the circulation and services in the central core and the residential areas grouped around it on several storeys. See also tower-block.
40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

J. S. Edgren

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,024 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

... century, implying that it could be treated as a large printing block. The ink-squeeze rubbing method of duplicating the texts of steles, and their assumption of book forms in imitation of MSS, offered further stimulation to the idea of textual printing. 2 Tang to Yuan (7 th –14 th centuries) The actual circumstances of the invention of printing in China are not known; however, Tang dynasty ( 618–907 ) references to printing and the corpus of undated specimens of printing from Tang tombs all point to an approximate date no later than ad 700 . Thanks to...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

James Mosley

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,250 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...earliest datable instance of the use of engraved relief wood blocks to print many copies of an extensive text and an image with *ink . The technique of *woodblock printing that finally evolved to make printed books required several steps. The text was written by a professional calligrapher on thin sheets of paper and pasted in reverse on a block of wood, so that the writing was visible. Superfluous wood was cut away, leaving a facsimile of the reversed text in relief. Ink was dabbed on the block, and sheets of paper were pressed to it with stiff brushes,...

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies   Reference library

Paul Goldman

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,997 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...worked in a sweatshop economy. Long *press runs from wood engravings were often achieved by the use of metal *electrotypes , which were faithful *facsimiles of the boxwood blocks. In The Pencil of Nature ( 1844–6 ), W. H. Fox Talbot produced the first published book illustrated photographically. It was not until the 1880s that *photomechanical processes such as line-block, *half-tone , and *photogravure began to supplant wood engraving, then in decline. The subject of illustrated children’s books is so vast that it can only be touched on here...

The Characteristics of Islamic Economics

The Characteristics of Islamic Economics   Reference library

Āyatullāh Mahmūd

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,392 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...foreigners and the governments connected with them, which now appears among Muslims in all areas of action, is what has made them static and blocked the functioning of the Islamic economic system as it has everything else. . . . Twelfth, thus according to what has been said, Islamic economics are founded on the principles of right and justice, and are not based on any special group or class. In fact, from the point of view of Islam the appearance of the features of classes is not a necessary inevitable thing or a irremediable social necessity. The...

The Psychological Role of Islam in Economic Development

The Psychological Role of Islam in Economic Development   Reference library

Muhammad Baqir Al-Sadr

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,229 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for success in its battle against backwardness for development when the program is derived from Islam and chooses the Islamic system as the framework for its point of departure. Besides the complex feelings of the umma in the Islamic world towards colonialism and all programs connected with colonialist countries, there is also another complication which presents a sizeable difficulty blocking the success of new European economic programs applied in the Islamic world. It is the contradiction between these programs and the religious creed which Muslims...

19 The Electronic Book

19 The Electronic Book   Reference library

Eileen Gardiner and Ronald G. Musto

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,021 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...or study guides. By the late 1990s , most narrative titles on CD had become audio books: a return not to the codex but to pre-codex oral traditions. 2.4 The World Wide Web Although disk-based e-books proved as ephemeral to the development of the electronic book as *block printing and the block book in the ultimate development of the print revolution, the lessons learned during the years of developing digital content were not lost. Large corporate investments in the digitization of content, improvements in delivery software, and the vital experience in...

On the Political Utility of Using Armed Violence

On the Political Utility of Using Armed Violence   Reference library

Mahdi Shams Al-Din Shaikh Muhammad

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,098 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Movement into the style of oppressor (Taghut). 3. Isolation of the Islamic Movement from the General Course of Politics This style was one of the causes blocking the Islamic Movement from entering political alliances and forming fronts with other political forces in order to confront regimes. It also widened the gap between the Islamists with their mass base—both politically and from a human point of view—and other forces with their bases. It created an atmosphere of extreme caution among all other political forces. The conviction grew that Islamists do...

Prints

Prints   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to work easily and freely with a greasy medium on the block of fine limestone it usually required. It also had great commercial potential; because the image was printed from the surface of the stone it could be made compatible with letterpress. Steel plates came into general production in the 1820s and they effectively replaced the use of copper, enabling increasingly large editions of line-engravings and book illustrations. Under Bewick, working in Newcastle, the use of wood-engraving burgeoned to the point that it practically forestalled the success of...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

P. F. Kornicki

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...of these was *maps and another was the samurai directories known as bukan . The cartographic knowledge acquired by the shogunal government in connection with its assertion of control over all the land of Japan acquired a commercial life of its own as publishers put out large, block-printed maps of cities, provinces, the whole of Japan, and even the world. One of the most significant maps was that of Japan produced in 1779 by Nagakubo Sekisui , a man of humble origins who achieved fame and position by means of his cartographic skills; his map of 1779 was...

Islam and the 1995 Beijing World Conference on Women

Islam and the 1995 Beijing World Conference on Women   Reference library

Muhammad Shahrour

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,254 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...listening to other opinions, and acknowledging their existence. This positive outcome is not in any way alien to our beliefs as Muslims. We will never forget the slogan—political, intellectual, and social—with which the Prophet Muhammad confronted the polytheists: “Don’t block the way between me and my people.” People's convictions are not generated by violence and coercion, but by peaceful and open dialogue. Open dialogues do not frighten us as Muslims. Fear is created by a lack of self-confidence and by weak suppositions which cannot be sustained in...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

Geoffrey Roper

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,249 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...origins of printing in the Arabic script Printing was practised in the Muslim world as early as the 10 th century. Block prints on paper, and at least two on parchment, found in Egypt, survive in several collections, notably in Cairo, Vienna, Cambridge, and New York, and further pieces have emerged from excavations. One in private hands may originate in Afghanistan or Iran. However, no literary or historical testimony to the craft of *block printing seems to exist, except for two obscure references in Arabic poems of the 10 th and 14 th centuries to the...

Islam and Modernity

Islam and Modernity   Reference library

Fazlur Rahman

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,833 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and pristine Islam; yet they have been arrested at a certain point. Again, the Muslim modernist has also explicitly held that Muslims must go back to the original and pristine Islam; yet they have come up with certain doctrines that both the fundamentalist and the conservative have failed to recognize as Islamic—indeed, as anything but Western, that is, un-Islamic! What is, then the guarantee, or at least the likelihood, that the pursuit of the new solution will not be arrested at a certain point, or that the results reached will not be so bewilderingly...

1 Corinthians

1 Corinthians   Reference library

John Barclay and John Barclay

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
31,224 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the general rule. If this is right, Paul agrees with the knowledgeable about their freedom to a large degree, but checks them at the point where their freedom causes real damage to others ( cf. Rom 14:1–15:6 ). The last few verses of this discussion ( 10:31–11:1 ) sum up its principles. Eating and drinking are to be done ‘to the glory of God’, without compromise of that glory by idolatry. At the same time, no stumbling-block (the Greek echoes 8:9 and is much stronger than NRSV ‘offence’) is to be placed in the path of Jews or Greeks or the church ( 10:32 )....

14 Printed Ephemera

14 Printed Ephemera   Reference library

Michael Harris

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,085 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...problem with this and alternative listings is that they tend to create an artificial homogeneity in which all the selected non-book materials have an equivalent importance. An alternative approach maintains the interest in form, but focuses on the ways in which the separation of blocks of material has come about, in particular through the process of collection. In its raw state, printed ephemera can be seen as a huge and alarming heap of materials—the trivial and the profound, the commercial and the exhortatory—jumbled together in the context of the confused...

Isaiah

Isaiah   Reference library

R. Coggins and R. Coggins

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
64,792 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...so that the picture of this material as one coherent block is no longer part of the scholarly consensus. In particular, attention is paid to differences between chs. 40–8 and 49–55 (Merendino ( 1981 ); see also the notes in this commentary at the end of ch. 48 ). There is certainly no book of Deutero-Isaiah, only some anonymous chapters within the larger collection which we are studying. Attempts to structure history on the basis of poetry are notoriously difficult. But does the substantive point remain? Was there really a poet-prophet among a community...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...In fact that alliance, which Warburton held to be mutually advantageous, was more than a little unbalanced. The twenty-six Anglican bishops sat of right in the House of Lords, where in the middle quarters of the eighteenth century they formed a generally dependable pro-government block; by the same token, the clergy were ineligible to vote for or to serve as members of the House of Commons. But the Church's own parliament, convocation (divided into separate convocations for the two provinces of Canterbury and York), lost its principal claim to existence when its...

Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

.... J. N. Tarn , Five Per Cent Philanthropy ( 1973 ), describes the measures taken to provide cheap housing for the working classes in urban areas between 1840 and 1914 , and the story is taken up to the very recent past in Miles Glendenning and Stefan Muthesius, Tower Block: Modern Public Housing in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland ( 1994 ). There is probably more literature on the housing of London than for any other city in the kingdom. It has also been more extensively illustrated, and a thorough index to topographical books with...

Liberation Theology: Europe

Liberation Theology: Europe   Reference library

Luise Schottroff and John Rogerson

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,737 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...water’ (D. Sölle, Mystik und Widerstand , 353). The belief in God of the rich begins with listening to this question of the poor. The history of liberation theology interpretation of the Bible in Western contexts shows that the demand of the gospel of the poor is a stumbling-block in a particular way. The peace movement is concerned with issues that immediately affect the interests of the people of Western Europe. The liberation theology interpretation of the biblical message of peace has found a much broader basis than the gospel of the poor. It touches...

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