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Overview

planning fallacy

The demonstrated tendency for people to underestimate the length of time it will take them to complete a task. Various explanations have been offered, including optimism bias, failure to ...

planning fallacy

planning fallacy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
159 words

... fallacy The demonstrated tendency for people to underestimate the length of time it will take them to complete a task. Various explanations have been offered, including optimism bias , failure to allow for extraneous factors such as sickness etc., and the wish to make a good impression when submitting plans for approval. One counterintuitive finding of studies in this area is that the more detailed and specific the plan, the more likely it is to be seriously over-optimistic. This is perhaps because detailed planning (i) encourages people to suppose...

planning fallacy

planning fallacy  

The demonstrated tendency for people to underestimate the length of time it will take them to complete a task. Various explanations have been offered, including optimism bias, failure to allow for ...
Islam and Modernity

Islam and Modernity   Reference library

Fazlur Rahman

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,833 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...cannot be ignored or discarded for certain basic reasons. First of all, it is historic Islam that gives continuity to the intellectual and spiritual being of the community. No community can annul its past and hope to create a future being for itself—as that community. A basic fallacy of an Atatürkish kind of “reform” consists precisely in an effort to shed the historical being of the community and to seek a future without it. It is important, however, to understand precisely the meaning of what I am saying, which is not that we should necessarily go slow with...

Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient Israel

Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient Israel   Reference library

Lawrence E. Stager

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
19,872 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...most common attributes of that culture (pillared farmhouses, collared-rim store jars, terraced fields, and cisterns), or to claim that all of these villages and hamlets on both sides of the Jordan are “Israelite” just because they share a common material culture, is to commit a fallacy against which the great French medieval historian Marc Bloch warned, namely, of ascribing a widespread phenomenon to a “pseudo-local cause.” A general phenomenon must have an equally general cause. Comparison with a similar but widespread phenomenon often undermines purely local...

Hofstadter's law

Hofstadter's law  

The adage that a task will always take longer than expected, even when Hofstadter's law is taken into account. The law is therefore endlessly recursive. Although often taken facetiously, the law ...
Sutton E. Griggs

Sutton E. Griggs  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1872–1933), novelist, essayist, biographer, publisher, Baptist minister, and pastor.Born in Chatfield, Texas, on 19 June 1872, the son of Reverend Allen R. Griggs, a pioneer Baptist preacher in ...
ecological fallacy

ecological fallacy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...fallacy A wrong assumption about an individual based on aggregate data for a group; the presence of a relationship between two variables at an aggregated level that is due simply to aggregation, rather than to any real association ( Openshaw (1984) Env. & Plan. A 16 ). See Dark and Bram (2007) PPG 31, 5 on the modifiable areal unit problem and the ecological fallacy; see G. King ( 1997 ) on a...

optimism bias

optimism bias   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
125 words

...from their own plans and actions. Studies have suggested that this is a universal cognitive bias, possibly with a biological origin. Although optimism may be a stimulus to enterprise, it has obvious dangers: these include increased risk taking (including neglect of basic precautions), failure to estimate probabilities accurately, and inadequate contingency planning. In drawing up plans, schedules, and budgets there is a demonstrated tendency for managers to underestimate costs and duration and to overestimate benefits ( see planning fallacy ). This being so,...

Hofstadter’s law

Hofstadter’s law   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
85 words

...law is taken into account. The law is therefore endlessly recursive. Although often taken facetiously, the law makes the serious point that something unexpected is very likely to occur in the completion of any complex task, no matter how carefully one plans. It is therefore a good antidote to planning fallacy and optimism bias . The law is named after the US academic Douglas Hofstadter ( 1945–...

strategic misrepresentation

strategic misrepresentation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
78 words

...misrepresentation In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus distinct from optimism bias , planning fallacy , or simple miscalculation. Those who adopt such a policy would probably justify it as an expected part of the negotiation ‘game’ and argue that many worthwhile projects would never get approval if the true costs were revealed at the...

Intentional Fallacy

Intentional Fallacy   Reference library

S. Schryer

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Fallacy . “The Intentional Fallacy” is the title of a 1946 article by William K. Wimsatt, Jr. and Monroe C. Beardsley . The essay argues against the notion that literary texts should be interpreted in light of authorial intention, understood as an independent design or plan in the author’s mind. Authorial intention, they argue, is inaccessible to the reader outside of the evidence present in the poem itself. When critics appeal to intention, they are, therefore, asking readers to turn away from the poem toward supplementary texts such as jours.,...

Fowler, H. W.

Fowler, H. W.   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...including those collected in Popular Fallacies ( 1904 ) and Between Boy and Man ( 1908 ). With his brother, Francis George Fowler ( 1870–1918 ), he wrote The King's English ( 1906 ), a popular work of grammar and lexicography, and compiled the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English ( 1911 ). The brothers joined the ‘Sportsmen's battalion’ in 1915 , but Francis died of consumption before the war ended. Henry Fowler's best-known work, Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage ( 1926 ), had been planned with his brother. The entries are...

Halsey Frederick A.

Halsey Frederick A. (1856–1935)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
1,007 words

...the slough of despond in which metric Europe wallows in order to help metric Europe out. ( Halsey 1904: 12) Bibliography Drury, H. B. (1915) Scientific Management , New York: Columbia University Press. Halsey, F. A. (1904) The Metric Fallacy , New York: D. Van Nostrand and Co. Halsey, F. A. (1905) ‘The Premium Plan of Paying for Labour’, in J. R. Commons (ed.), Trade Unionism and Labour Problems , Boston: Ginn and Co. Halsey, F. A. (1914) Methods of Machine Shop Work , New York: McGraw-Hill....

Heathfield, Richard

Heathfield, Richard (1775–1859)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
846 words

...The flyleaf of Elements of a Plan for the Liquidation of the Public Debt of the United Kingdom ( 1819 ) refers to him as ‘gent.’, but this probably indicates only that he had become wealthy through business and had purchased a landed estate. A connection with engineering and surveying is indicated in some of his technical works. His writings, which are considerable, date from the period 1819–51 and cover subjects relating to engineering and transport and several works on the national debt. His last book was Fallacies of Taxation ( 1851 ). In his 1819 ...

Whately, Richard

Whately, Richard (1787–1863)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,177 words

...45). Whately’s treatment of fallacies in his 1827 Logic has enduring value. Fallacies are said to involve a mix of inference and desire. After making technical distinctions between types of fallacies, Whately comes to grips with the issue of interest. We believe that fallacies are a means by which people take advantage of others, but Whately suggests that this is not the only situation in which people ‘slide’ into fallacy: ‘there is much danger, even in what may be called solitary reasoning , of sliding unawares into some Fallacy, by which one may be so...

Intention

Intention   Reference library

Mark Vareschi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Literary Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022

...Intentional Fallacy,” in The Verbal Icon: Studies in the Meaning of Poetry , ed. William K. Wimsatt (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1954), 3–20. The essay appeared first in The Sewanee Review 54, no. 3 (1946): 468–488. 11. Wimsatt and Beardsley, “The Intentional Fallacy,” 3. 12. Wimsatt and Beardsley, “The Intentional Fallacy,” 4. 13. Joshua Gang, “Behaviorism and the Beginnings of Close Reading,” ELH 78, no. 1 (2011): 18. 14. Wimsatt and Beardsley, “The Intentional Fallacy,” 4. 15. Wimsatt and Beardsley, “The Intentional Fallacy,”4. 16. ...

Birth Control and Family Planning

Birth Control and Family Planning   Reference library

Carole R. McCann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of the Comstock Law, abstinence-only legislation assumes that exposure to knowledge about contraceptives undercuts chastity. At the same time, anxieties about the reproductive practices of the poor and of racial minorities have continued as well. Based on the widely held fallacy that teen pregnancy causes poverty, in 1990 some hailed the first long-acting hormonal contraceptive, Norplant, as a means of containing welfare costs and solving inner-city social problems. While restricting public funding for education related to contraceptives, state...

Mints, Lloyd Winn

Mints, Lloyd Winn (1888–1989)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
933 words

...limit their loan activities to bona fide commercial purposes, this will automatically provide for all needed variations in the means of payment. In this work, Mints showed that from the time of Adam Smith through to the creation of the Federal Reserve System, the real-bills fallacy reappears as a guide to policy. Mints regarded adherence to the real-bills doctrine to be the single most important obstacle to formulating a monetary policy consistent with a competitive, free enterprise economy. Mints would not be surprised that even today economists continue...

Mummery, Albert Frederick

Mummery, Albert Frederick (1855–95)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,228 words

...made considerable contributions. The Physiology of Industry has at its heart an attempt to prove the truth of the theory of oversaving, that is, that excessive saving and lack of consumer spending can lead to economic depressions. The theory was held by most economists to be a fallacy, and mill ’s doctrine that saving enriches both the community and the individual while spending impoverishes was the general economic orthodoxy. Mummery and Hobson attacked this view in forthright terms, arguing that a decline in spending inevitably results in over-production....

Smart Growth

Smart Growth   Reference library

William GALLOWAY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,618 words

...Association of Local Government Environmental Professionals. Nelson, Arthur C. , & Peterman, David R. (2000). Does growth management matter? The effect of growth management on economic performance. Journal of Planning Education and Research , 19 (3), 277–285. Neuman, Michael . (2005). The compact city fallacy. Journal of Planning Education and Research , 25 (1), 11–26. Newman, Peter G. , & Kenworthy, Jeffrey R. (1999). Sustainability and cities: Overcoming automobile dependence . Washington, DC: Island Press. Porter, Douglas . (2002). Making...

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