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place of articulation

The location within the mouth where a speech sound is made. In English, there are ten places of articulation for consonants: bilabial, labiodental, dental, alveolar, post-alveolar, ...

place of articulation

place of articulation n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... of articulation n . The location within the mouth where a speech sound is made. In English, there are ten places of articulation for consonants : bilabial , labiodental , dental , alveolar , post-alveolar , palato-alveolar , palatal , velar , glottal , and retroflex . There are a few additional places of articulation in other...

place of articulation

place of articulation   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
110 words

... of articulation A position in the vocal tract by which a consonant is classified, defined by the point of maximal contact or near contact between an active and a passive articulator . In kick , for example, the place of articulation of both consonants is velar : in phonetic notation, [kɪk]. That is, the position of maximal contact (in this instance closure ) is between the back of the tongue and the velum or soft part of the palate. Compare manner of articulation . For the main places of articulation, starting from the front of the mouth, see ...

place of articulation

place of articulation  

The location within the mouth where a speech sound is made. In English, there are ten places of articulation for consonants: bilabial, labiodental, dental, alveolar, post-alveolar, palato-alveolar, ...
Reason and Individual Reasoning

Reason and Individual Reasoning   Reference library

Khan Muqtedar

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,104 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of revelation. The point that is often ignored in discussions of ijtihad, its meaning, role, scope and functions, is that the conceptualization of ijtihad itself is the product of ijtihad. The development of the ‘usul al-fiqh , the principles of jurisprudence, and the systematic articulation and rank ordering of the sources of Islamic Law—Quran, Sunna, ijma, ijtihad, ‘urf and maslaha —are all products of an ijtihad much wider in scope than its standard understanding. In a remarkably curious development, a conceptually wider process of ijtihad has...

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in
          History

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in History   Reference library

John L. Esposito and John O. Voll

Makers of Contemporary Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,895 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...This person was heir to the modernist efforts of al-Afghani and Abduh (and Ahmad Khan and others) but was different in terms of the evaluation of the West. While Abduh emphasized the importance of a rational articulation of Islam and accepted the validity of Western rationalist thought, as well as accepting the fact of British rule in Egypt, al-Banna was actively anti-imperialist and saw much of the Western intellectual heritage as encouraging unbelief ...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

Cristina Dondi

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,151 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...heads, and page or folio numbers are the inevitable consequence of more sophisticated *textual articulation , increased *press runs , and economic policies. The use of hand-applied colour disappears almost entirely in the 16 th century, its visual appeal replaced in part by *engravings . The appearance of the printed book had initially been determined by the reading public’s habits and tastes, which had developed during the MS period; but from the 16 th century onwards, the exigencies of printing would eventually change that public’s taste and...

Jihad and the Modern World

Jihad and the Modern World   Reference library

Jackson Sherman

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,768 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of Islamic Conceptions of War.” This was part of an edited volume entitled Just War and Jihad: Historical and Theoretical Perspectives on War and Peace in Western and Islamic Traditions . 2 In this article, professor Donner began by questioning the propriety of relying solely on the Qur'ân, the Sunna or the books of Islamic law for an understanding of the substance and the logic underlying the medieval Muslim concept of jihad. Rather, according to professor Donner, the Muslim valuation and articulation of jihad were just as much, if not more, a product of ...

History

History   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,067 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to a highly specified articulation of cultural times and places; a challenge to certain ways of taking historical bearings from the concepts of a transcendent providence or a universal human nature; a commitment to the view that, as Marx would later put it, ‘men make their own history, but under conditions given them from the past’. Even allowing that historicism, so understood, dates from our period, it might none the less seem strange to offer a substantial consideration of the subject here. For the literary culture of this period in Britain managed...

Consumerism

Consumerism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,809 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the last twenty years various economic historians, McKendrick in particular, have argued that one major cause, and possibly the key cause, of the industrial revolution was the articulation of effective home consumer demand. Even if by the early Victorian age—arguably the peak decades of industrial transformation—economic dynamism was primarily associated with steam-powered factories and also with the pumping out of heavy industrial products and capital goods (coal, iron, steel, chemicals, steam engines, railways, ships, machine tools, and factory plant), the...

41 The History of the Book in Korea

41 The History of the Book in Korea   Reference library

Beth McKillop

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,106 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...only that the people will learn them easily and use them conveniently in their daily life. The new alphabet was the culmination of years of research by King Sejong and his scholar assistants. The *letterforms have a fascinating origin. Consonants are shown in shapes mirroring the position of oral organs during articulation of each sound: the ‘k’ sound being shown by ¬, reflecting the position of the tongue against the roof of the mouth, while the ‘m’ sound, a square shape, □, imitates pursed lips in forming the sound. Closed vowels are represented...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...individuals could be and were included in a contemporary definition of nationhood. Events such as the dispersal of the Walpole collection at Houghton Hall and the various schemes proposed for the establishment of a National Gallery are part of a halting articulation of what might now be termed a sense of national ‘cultural heritage’. The history of art in the Romantic era is the gradual revelation of the role of art and its publics within this construct. Barrell, J. , The Political Theory of Painting from Reynolds to Hazlitt , New Haven, Conn., 1986; Friedman,...

Rethinking Islam Today

Rethinking Islam Today   Reference library

Mohamed Arkoun

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,624 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a typical structure of the individual imaginaire , specific articulation and use of reason and imagination, become a private concern separated from public life? One could add the triumph of pragmatism , which gives priority to action over contemplation, verification over truth, method over system, logic over rhetoric, future over past, and becoming over being. Along this line of thinking, secularization is usually presented as one of the following: a decaying of the former capacity for receiving divine inspiration and guidance; a cultural...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to be protected against the ravages of public taste—an articulation of the nineteenth-century concept of aspiration rather than enjoyment. While virtuosity was soon readmitted, its practitioners were always reminded that an invitation brought prestige, and were therefore under-rewarded in financial terms. Symphonies and overtures remained the backbone of the Society's endeavours, whether already canonical or else newly commissioned, as with Mendelssohn and his compatriot Louis Spohr. At first the Philharmonic's stance of high art also paid off financially,...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to any larger intellectual function of the world of ‘polite letters’. The new English Review ( 1783 ), however, mingled writers from both conservative and progressive political camps to introduce a new category—‘Public Affairs’. The English and the Analytical Review ( 1788 ) were the first to circulate the notion of ‘public opinion’ as a newly autonomous force in British public culture, and before long the Monthly and the Critical likewise took up the mantle of ‘public opinion’ as the political articulation of what had formerly been a mainly...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,432 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...but the names of all orders of being (Og and Anak, Ololon and Beulah) and the precise articulation of the dialectic of their acts at the different scalar levels of their appearances. Everything is exactly as it is perceived and the perceptions are always multiple: illusion is illusion, reality is reality, and the dialectical relation between the two—‘the furious Wars of Eternity’—is the grammar of their expression. Blake's earliest complete revelation of this humanist vision comes in The Marriage of Heaven and Hell , where illusion and reality, Vala and...

Liberation Theology: Latin America

Liberation Theology: Latin America   Reference library

M. Daniel Carroll R.

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,826 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
10

...of church care and governance, such as the bishops (Boff speaks as a Roman Catholic). Finally, there are the professional theologians, who have the vocation and training to be able to spend time and effort on the actual articulation of this new way of doing theology. Even though this last group at times might write for and speak to audiences other than the poor of their local communities (such as international forums, or European and North American academic institutions), they should not lose their links with the socio-economic and political reality of...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

Geoffrey Roper

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,249 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

... in the absence of *punctuation ( see textual articulation ). Gilt and silver also appear in some more prestigious MSS, especially Qur’āns, both for script and illumination ( see illuminated manuscript, muslim ). The Arabic script, under the impetus of the need to write down the divine text of the Qur’ān, quickly developed from its rudimentary beginnings. By elaborating a system of pointing and *diacritics , it remedied its deficiencies and emerged as a functional means of rendering and recording Arabic texts, although it never became fully phonetic. At...

2 Peter

2 Peter   Reference library

Jeremy Duff and Jeremy Duff

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,865 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...be …provided’: emphases added). Others were doubting that this future component would ever happen ( 3:3–13 ), but its importance is reaffirmed here in Peter's articulation of the Christian message. Ch. 2 will describe and oppose those who despite possessing the knowledge are following the path to destruction (hinted at in v. 9 ). Overall, the exordium provides a positive message, while the body of the letter expands on this by dealing with those who are, in Peter's view, stumbling. 2 Peter distinguishes between two different word groups when dealing with...

A Land Divided: Judah and Israel from the Death of Solomon to the Fall of Samaria

A Land Divided: Judah and Israel from the Death of Solomon to the Fall of Samaria   Reference library

Edward F. Campbell Jr.

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
19,373 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...then, a continuum of ideology about kingship. The Deuteronomy tradition sketched above was one articulation, dubious about kingship, with the passage about kings in 17.14–20 as a grudging concession (unless it is a late addition tailored to the reign of Josiah, which would leave “original” Deuteronomy silent on the issue of monarchy). Others in the north emphasized the validity of a kingship that practiced righteousness, placing beside the king the equally potent institution of the prophet as an established office in the ideology of governance....

Job

Job   Reference library

James L. Crenshaw and James L. Crenshaw

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
28,334 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...also Prov 8:24–30 a ). The poem claims that Elohim recognized wisdom during an act of creativity. Educational terms describe the deity's intellectual pursuit of wisdom: ‘Then he saw it and declared it, he established it, and searched it out.’ Observation led to articulation of the facts as perceived; the positing of a theory followed, with further probing of its accuracy or inaccuracy ( cf. Eccl 7:23–5; Sir 6:27 ). The conclusion of this majestic poem is something of a let-down. One expects a profound statement; instead, a cliché brings readers back...

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