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photography

In an age of film, television, and holiday snapshots, it is hard to remember that until comparatively recently people had little idea what their rulers or celebrities looked like, nor ... ...

Photography.

Photography.   Reference library

Peter Bacon Hales

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
940 words

...Park . Beaumont Newhall , The Daguerreotype in America , 1961. Weston Naef , Era of Exploration: The Rise of Landscape Photography in the American West, 1860–1885 , 1975. Jonathan Greene , American Photography: A Critical History, 1945 to the Present , 1984. Naomi Rosenblum , A World History of Photography , 1984. Martha A. Sandweiss , ed., Photography in Nineteenth-Century America , 1991. Peter Galassi , American Photography, 1890–1965 , 1995. Peter Bacon...

photography

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The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
180 words

... The practice of photography became highly fashionable in Europe and America in the mid‐19th century, with writers' portraits among the most popular subjects. In England, Julia Margaret Cameron ( 1815–79 ) photographed Alfred Tennyson , Robert Browning , Charles Darwin , and Thomas Carlyle . In France, Nadar ( Gaspard‐Félix Tournachon , ( 1820–1910 ) recorded all the great composers, artists, and writers of the era, including Honoré de Balzac , Victor Hugo , Charles Baudelaire , and Émile Zola . Many 20th‐century writers became proficient...

photography

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A Dictionary of Forensic Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Science and technology, Law
Length:
365 words

... An integral part of the forensic process that has become much more widely used with the advent of digital cameras and imaging systems. The word photography means ‘light writing’, and in the case of film media, is based on exposure of light sensitive compounds such as silver chloride (AgCl) to light. The light causes the salt to darken and, when developed, the pattern forms a negative of the original image. Colour film photography employs layers of these light sensitive compounds, each of which responds to different colours. Projection of light through...

Photography

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The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,832 words

...or all groups. Conditions of Peace Photography The peculiarity of photography is elusive and includes something magical, as Jean Baudrillard stated. Peace photography has to take that into account. Probably one of the biggest disparities between war and peace photography is the necessity of high quality. A war picture is regarded as excellent if its content is outstanding and—very often—extraordinarily brutal and rare. High levels of technical and artistic quality are favorable but not a must, especially in digital photography. Peace photographs, however, need a...

Photography

Photography   Reference library

Reese V. Jenkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...change in photography at Kodak, especially developments in color photography by the Eastman Kodak Research Laboratory’s first director. Newhall, Beaumont . The Daguerreotype in America . New York: New York Graphic Society, 1968. Excellent, detailed older technical/artistic study of the birth of photography in the United States by America’s pioneer art photography historian. “Photography.” National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/search/main?edan_q=Early+photography&op=Search Rosenblum...

photography

photography   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,904 words

...years that followed, the increasing interplay of photography, film, and television nurtured a growing awareness of the power of visual communication, which assumed new intellectual proportions with Marshall McLuhan 's identification of medium and message. The last decades of the 20th century witnessed a rise in interest both in the history of photography and in photography as a fine art, with the publication of Ralph Greenhill's Early Photography in Canada ( 1965 ), the establishment of the photography collection at the National Gallery ( 1967 ), and the...

Photography

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The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
463 words

... . France was the birthplace of photography, though England (with Fox Talbot ) may claim a share in the invention. It was Nicéphore Niépce ( 1765–1833 ) who in the 1820s, cooperating with Daguerre , developed the process from which modern photography derives. In the 19th c. the new invention was used in France as elsewhere to record aspects of reality. It had its greatest success in portraiture [ see Nadar ], but also served to depict exotic places ( Du Camp left memorable images of the Egypt he visited with Flaubert ) or to record social...

Photography

Photography   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,289 words
Illustration(s):
1

... . Announced in 1839 by Louis Daguerre , photography has been central to the development of a modernity characterized by the mass (re)production and rapid circulation of images and by a new critical position with respect to social reality—made possible by what Walter Benjamin termed photography's “optical unconscious.” Reassuring though it is to focus on a single originary date, photography slowly struggled to emerge over more than a century prior to 1839 , forcing the photographic historian Helmut Gernsheim to observe that “the circumstance...

photography

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A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
182 words

...photography The process of forming a permanent record of an image. Traditionally photography has used specially treated film or paper. In normal black-and-white photography a camera is used to expose a film or plate to a focused image of the scene for a specified time. The film or plate is coated with an emulsion containing silver salts and the exposure to light causes the silver salts to break down into silver atoms; where the light is bright dark areas of silver are formed on the film after development (by a mild reducing agent) and fixing. The negative...

Photography

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A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
110 words

... The invention of photography has given rise to a number of Halakhic problems ( see HALAKHAH ). Can a photograph be relied on for the purpose of identifying a corpse so that the wife can be permitted to remarry? (The photograph can be relied on together with other criteria, according to many authorities.) Is a photographed mezuzah valid? In view of the opposition to representation of the human figure in art , is it permitted to take photographs of people? While a few authorities were, at first, strict in this matter, nowadays hardly anyone takes...

Photography

Photography   Reference library

John Harvey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and the Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Religion, Art & Architecture
Length:
2,272 words

... Photography emerged in 1839 at the intersection of science and art, technology and aesthetics, and empiricism and the imagination. The practice involves an optical device overseen by a human operative and a two-stage procedure: capturing the image with a camera and processing the capture thereafter. At each stage the photographer is able to control or manipulate the image. In this way photography enables both the objective recording and subjective reshaping of reality. Photography, Religion, and the Biblical Mind. In relation to the Bible,...

photography

photography   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,295 words

...world events on otherwise normal bodies. In the 1970s photography and the body intersected in new ways. No longer considered a transparent record or means of abstraction, as it had been for much of its history, photography was now seen as marking the extent to which the world is mediated, coming to us already as a representation. Using photography this way, artists explored the social and cultural bases of such attributes of the body as gender , race, class, and sexual orientation . Artists used photography to document artistic performances that used the body...

Photography

Photography   Reference library

Joel Snyder, Alan Trachtenberg, Patrick Maynard, Richard Shiff, Todd Cronan, and Matthew Biro

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
21,671 words
Illustration(s):
2

... . To analyze the history, technology, and aesthetics of photography, this entry comprises six essays: Overview Daguerreotype Photography and Technology Catachresis Chance Documentary Photography The first essay is an overview of the history and current status of photography aesthetics. The second explains the daguerreotype and its role in the development of photography, while the third concerns the technology of photography or, rather, photography as technology. The fourth essay examines in depth the problem of catachresis (false metaphor)...

Photography

Photography   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,606 words
Illustration(s):
1

... To analyze the history, technology, and aesthetics of photography, this entry comprises five essays: An Overview Daguerreotype Photography and Technology Photography and Digital Technology Catachresis The first essay is an overview of the history and current status of photography aesthetics. The second explains the daguerreotype and its role in the development of photography. The third essay concerns the technology of photography or, rather, photography as technology. The fourth essay explains the relationship between the aesthetics of photography and...

photography

photography   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,134 words

... . There is a good case to be made for the proposition that the greatest contribution that Scotland has made to the visual arts, possibly to the arts as a whole, is in the art of photography. The key to the claim is the work of David Octavius Hill ( 1802–70 ) and Robert Adamson ( 1821–48 ). Their output of about 3,000 images in four years is acknowledged as the first, and some would say finest, use of the medium of photography for artistic purposes. The proof of that status is not hard to find. A glance at any international history of photography,...

Photography

Photography   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
216 words

... . Although Italy was not involved in its invention, Italian photography flourished in the later 19th c. with commercial studios specializing in the reproduction of topographical and architectural views, and of works of art for the rapidly growing tourist market. Florence became one of the main centres, following the establishment in the 1850s of the studios of Giacomo Brogi and the Fratelli Alinari, who aimed at systematic photographic documentation of the whole of Italy. Among the portrait photographers was Mario Nunes Vais , who photographed the...

photography

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
239 words

... Process of obtaining a permanent image of an object, either in black-and-white or in colour, on treated paper or film. A camera is used to expose a film to an image of the object to be photographed, for a set time. In black-and-white photography, the film is covered on one side with an emulsion containing a silver halide (silver bromide or silver chloride). The silver compound is exposed, so that it reduces easily to metallic silver when treated with a developer . The action of the developer is to produce a black deposit of metallic silver...

photography

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A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
177 words

... The process of forming a permanent record of an image on specially treated film or paper. In normal black-and-white photography a camera is used to expose a film or plate to a focused image of the scene for a specified time. The film or plate is coated with an emulsion containing silver salts and the exposure to light causes the silver salts to break down into silver atoms; where the light is bright dark areas of silver are formed on the film after development (by a mild reducing agent) and fixing. The negative so formed is printed, either by a...

photography

photography   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,676 words

... cosmic rays , and particle physics employs photography to record events in its cloud and bubble chambers. With the advance of modern electronics, photoelectric devices are replacing silver-gelatin emulsions. Digitally-processed electronic imaging has reduced the role of photography in science and the lens-based media. Yet the photograph will endure in the art and archives of humanity. Josef M. Eder , History of Photography , trans. Edward Epstean (1945). Helmut and Alison Gernsheim , The History of Photography (1969). T. H. James , ed., The Theory of...

Photography

Photography   Reference library

Peter Bacon Hales

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...photography, exemplified by memorable photographs, including the restaged raising of the American flag over Iwo Jima , the aerial views of a mushroom cloud over Hiroshima and the devastated landscape beneath, and haunting images of the Nazi death camps after their liberation by Allied forces. These were images in which government imperative, national consensus, and mass-media commerce combined in a consortium that would profoundly influence the postwar photography scene. Photography in the Twentieth Century and Beyond. Artistic photography during the...

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