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Overview

petroleum industry

The industry came to maturity in the 20th cent. but it has a longer history. One of the curiosities of the Ironbridge Gorge was a spring of natural bitumen discovered ...

petroleum industry

petroleum industry   Reference library

John Butt

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
587 words

... industry . The industry came to maturity in the 20th cent. but it has a longer history. One of the curiosities of the Ironbridge Gorge was a spring of natural bitumen discovered in 1786 . In 1847 a petroleum seepage was discovered in a Derbyshire coal-mine; this yielded 300 gallons per day and required refining. James ‘Paraffin’ Young ( 1811–83 ), a technical chemist, developed the technology. He wrongly imagined that the petroleum had been condensed from the coal and began to distil oil-bearing coals and shales. The best was Torbanite, found...

Petroleum Industry.

Petroleum Industry.   Reference library

Norman Norhauser

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
530 words

...Petroleum Industry. The petroleum age began in 1859 when Edwin L. Drake's construction of the first oil well in northwestern Pennsylvania launched several oil rushes in the Appalachian fields and a refinery boom. For the rest of the nineteenth century the United States was the world's leading oil producer, refiner, consumer, and exporter. While demand for American illuminating oil expanded, continual improvements in processing petroleum, such as larger stills, pipeline gathering systems, and railroad tank cars, reduced costs. Aggressively applying economies...

petroleum industry

petroleum industry   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...the petroleum industry now has to operate. Fortunately for the industry, available technology is ever improving and this is enabling additional oil reserves to be recovered both from traditional and from frontier areas at reduced cost. Furthermore, huge undeveloped reserves of natural gas have also been located in many remote parts of the world, so it is to both technology and gas that the petroleum industry is turning. Industry objectives By far the greater proportion of those working in the Earth sciences earn their living from the petroleum industry....

Petroleum Industry

Petroleum Industry   Reference library

Norman Nordhauser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,075 words

... Industry The petroleum age began in 1859 when Edwin L. Drake's construction of the first oil well, in northwestern Pennsylvania, launched several oil rushes in the Appalachian fields and a refinery boom. For the rest of the nineteenth century the United States was the world's leading oil producer, refiner, consumer, and exporter. As demand for American illuminating oil expanded, continual improvements in processing petroleum, such as larger stills, pipeline gathering systems, and railroad tank cars, reduced costs. Aggressively applying economies of...

petroleum industry

petroleum industry   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,491 words

... industry . The organized discovery, recovery, processing, and marketing of raw oil and gas. The chemical constituents of all petroleums are hydrocarbons. Despite some contrary theories, the consensus favours petroleum (literally, ‘rock-oil’) having an organic origin, based on decayed plant and living matter subjected to heat and pressure during sedimentary rock formation beneath ancient seas. Over time, the organic elements of these layered rocks turn to coal, liquefy, or turn gaseous. Oil and gas then migrate upward out of the porous host rock and...

petroleum industry

petroleum industry  

The industry came to maturity in the 20th cent. but it has a longer history. One of the curiosities of the Ironbridge Gorge was a spring of natural bitumen discovered ...
Subject–Verb Agreement

Subject–Verb Agreement   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,228 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...] partly the result of the declining cognitive abilities of workers and administrators.” Malcolm W. Browne , “What Is Intelligence, and Who Has It?” N.Y. Times , 16 Oct. 1994 , § 7, at 3, 41. • “The absence of crude petroleum and iron ore, coupled with limited indigenous supplies of coal and natural gas, ensures that Japanese industry must import to survive.” Roger Buckley , Japan Today 67 (2d ed. 1990 ). Similarly, a phrase introduced by the preposition like , after a singular subject, does not make the number plural. The following example of...

Oilcode

Oilcode  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
A mandatory code that regulates conduct in the petroleum industry relating to terminal gate prices and fuel reselling agreements: see Trade Practices (Industry Codes—Oilcode) Regulations 2006 (Cth). ...
Offshore Industry

Offshore Industry  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
This entry contains three subentries: Economic History, Ocean Governance, Social HistoryOffshore exploration of petroleum resources started in the Gulf of Mexico in the late 1940s. Building on these ...
secondary recovery methods

secondary recovery methods  

In the petroleum industry, techniques by which recovery has been increased to about 50% since the 1940s, including the injection of natural gas above the oil in a reservoir to force the oil ...
vertical publications

vertical publications  

Editorial content that deals with the interests of a specific industry, e.g. National Petroleum Magazine and Retail Baking Today.
pharmaceutical industry

pharmaceutical industry  

A large industry responsible for development and manufacture of drugs, medications, pesticides, etc., for human and veterinary use. The pharmaceutical industry conducts and sponsors research on ...
Geological Surveys.

Geological Surveys.  

Geological surveys are among the earliest examples of government-supported science in the United States, with state surveys pre-dating the federal geological survey by nearly half a century.The North ...
ENERGY CRISIS OF THE 1970s.

ENERGY CRISIS OF THE 1970s.  

The energy crisis of the 1970s damaged the American economy and decisively affected presidential politics. Retaliating for Western support of Israel in the October 1973 Mideast War, Arab members of ...
Maritime Transport.

Maritime Transport.  

Water-borne transportation has been central to the American economy since Europeans first crossed the Atlantic. Oceans, bays, and rivers offer surfaces across which heavy vessels can be moved with ...
Illumination.

Illumination.  

Although lighting might appear a necessity, the perception of needs has changed radically since the Colonial Era, when the expense of illumination restricted it to domestic use, and night and ...
Teapot Dome Scandal

Teapot Dome Scandal  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1922–24)US fraud perpetrated by the “Ohio gang” surrounding President Harding. It involved the siphoning of oil, intended for the US navy, from the oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming, to the ...
chemical Industry

chemical Industry  

The most significant concentration of chemical manufacturing activity in Ireland during the 18th and 19th centuries was oriented towards supplying the linen industry with chemicals for finishing and ...
West, The.

West, The.  

The American West is both a place and a state of mind, and the two are not easily disentangled, since no agreement exists about either its geographic boundaries or its ...
green marketing

green marketing  

Promoting a product or service's ability to improve the environment and conserve the earth's natural resources. For example, in recent years leading petroleum companies, stung by criticism of their ...

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