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perpendicular lines

In coordinate geometry of the plane, a useful necessary and sufficient condition that two lines, with gradients m 1 and m 2, are perpendicular is that m ...

Grid Plan

Grid Plan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
390 words

...a grid. The meaning of any archaeological information, such as an excavated object or architectural remain, is derived largely from its context, and a grid helps to identify that location and context. To form a grid, an arbitrary system of intersecting perpendicular lines is imposed on a site. The lines are usually established according to magnetic directions, running north–south and east–west. A mid-point for the grid is often set at the center of the excavation area. However, at complex urban sites or at sites with visible surface remains or important...

Mataria Boat

Mataria Boat   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
666 words

...technologies. The Mataria hull reflects Egyptian nautical traditions that incorporated a feature of Mediterranean shipbuilding found in boats dating from the Late Bronze Age to the Byzantine period but never seen in the older Egyptian hulls: the occasional use of pegs driven perpendicularly through tenons to lock mortise-and-tenon joints. Although this type of fastening is known as early as the Egyptian first dynasty ( c. 2920–2770 ) in the manufacture of furniture, coffins, and statues, the Mataria boat marks the first recorded use of pegged mortise-and-tenon...

Papyrus

Papyrus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,102 words

...layers were pressed and beaten to meld them. The papyrus was then stretched and smoothed to make it fit for use. To create a roll, the sheets thus produced were glued together with the horizontal fibers on the inside, perpendicular to the join. A text on a scroll was normally arranged in columns, so that the writing followed the horizontal lines of the fibers. Normally, writing was done on only one side of the papyrus, although exceptions are known. For practical purposes, the papyrus was limited to a standard size: 47 cm long at the most (29–33 cm on the...

Anchors

Anchors   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,249 words
Illustration(s):
3

...with Z-shaped hook joints that were, in turn, secured by mortise-and-tenon joints (figure 3.5). Pegs placed perpendicularly through tenons in anchor arms locked them in position. When arm/shank joints loosened with wear, reinforcement collars (figure 3.4) poured onto anchors held the anchor arms in position (Haldane, 1986 ). Pliny records cork floats on lines used to mark an anchor's location on the sea bottom ( Nat. Hist. 16.13.34). These lines, tied to wooden-anchor crown notches (figure 3.6) or iron anchor crown rings, also freed anchors stuck in the...

Writing Materials

Writing Materials   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,960 words
Illustration(s):
1

....] The chief, if not completely reliable, source for the preparation of the writing material is Pliny the Elder's Natural History (13.74–82). Fresh strips of pith were laid side by side on a flat surface, with their edges touching; more strips were laid on top of them, perpendicularly, again with their edges touching. They were then pressed together (and perhaps pounded with a mallet), and the plants' sap bonded them into a very smooth, white, flexible sheet that could be inscribed on both sides. Usually, the sheets were glued into rolls of twenty, with...

Analytical Techniques

Analytical Techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,644 words

...is thus a typical method for species analysis. Many compounds exhibit typical infrared spectra that can be used as a “fingerprint.” Resonance raman spectroscopy ( RRS ) is a complementary technique to IRS in that the radiation scattered and partly reemitted in a direction perpendicular to that of the incident beam is measured. X-Ray Methods. When an element is irradiated with X-rays of appropriate wavelength, X-rays of different but smaller wavelength, characteristic of the element, are emitted. The underlying process is the displacement of an electron of...

Egyptian Aramaic Texts

Egyptian Aramaic Texts   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
12,108 words

...was a distinctive mode of writing for each type of document. Letters and contracts were written in a single column on a roll held vertically, perpendicular to the fibers and parallel to the joins. Although a letter frequently continued on the verso, contracts rarely did (exceptions are TAD B1.1; 2.3; 3.3; 4.4). All other texts were written in columns on a roll held horizontally, parallel to the fibers and perpendicular to the joins. At the end of the fifth century a few contracts were also written this way ( TAD B4.6; 7.1–3). Letters. Letters may be...

Building Materials and Techniques

Building Materials and Techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
17,911 words
Illustration(s):
10

...the use there of wooden posts. [See Beidha .] Wood has also been utilized in more complex structures. In orthogonal (right-angled) units, beams were used for roofing. The main beams were placed at intervals across the room and thinner branches were densely laid over and perpendicular to the beams. The top layer was made of mud or lime mortar. In many cases segments of the mortar, bearing the imprints of branches, are observable in the destruction deposits. Tree trunks were commonly used as columns to support the roof beams of large halls. Stone bases,...

Cities

Cities   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
19,325 words
Illustration(s):
5

...and beginning of the fourth centuries bce , was also enclosed by a city wall. One section, about 12 m long and 2.5 m wide, discovered on the east side of the city, was built of well-dressed local sandstone. The stones were shaped like bricks lying on their sides and were set perpendicular to the wall, like headers. At set intervals they were strengthened by piers of stretchers. At Tell el-Ḥesi, the remains of a wall that enclosed both the early and the later phases of the city were found. According to Bliss, its excavator, the north sides of the buildings of...

Gothic

Gothic   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
87 words

...of the 12th century ad . Subdivided into three periods: early (13th century ad ), characterized by the lancet window without tracery; the decorated Gothic ( c .1290–1350 ), in which windows have first geometrical, then flowing, tracery; and the perpendicular ( c .1350–1530 ), where tracery has strong vertical lines. The Gothic style was followed by the Tudor style, but was later revived as neo‐Gothic or Gothic during the 19th century ad...

Death and Burial in the Jewish Diaspora

Death and Burial in the Jewish Diaspora   Reference library

Karen B. Stern

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,303 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(Horbury and Noy, 1992 , no. 14, p. 21). In Leontopolis (Tell-el-Yehudieh) the local necropolis contained tombs marked with menorahs and biblical names. Steps facilitated access to subterranean passageways leading to a square central chamber where loculus tombs were cut perpendicularly into the rock. Bricks were placed under the heads of many of the dead. Inscribed stelae crowned with pediments were also discovered inside the complex. Several local inscriptions, as well as those from Demerdash, included metrical elegiac poems conventional throughout the...

Beersheba

Beersheba   Reference library

Gunnar Lehmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,352 words

...built with four chambers and repeatedly reconstructed. The general course of the streets did not change essentially through all four strata and are dominated by an inner and an outer peripheral alley parallel to the fortification wall and along the elevation lines. Radial streets running perpendicular to the peripheral alleys connected the inner part of the settlement with the outer one. There may have been free access to the city wall, considered by A. Faust a basic element of city planning in Judah and Israel during the Iron Age. There are indications of...

Gezer

Gezer   Reference library

Steven M. Ortiz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,050 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the hills and coast. During the Iron Age the typical house at Gezer was rectangular and consisted of four rooms. A central room with tabuns (ovens) was flanked by two parallel rooms on either side. These three rows of rooms were separated by pillars. There was a back room perpendicular to these three rows of rooms. This broad backroom functioned as a storage room. Such a house would have had a second story. To the northwest there is an eighth-century b.c.e. domestic quarter with several typical Iron-Age four-room houses built next to each other and a...

Islamic Civilization

Islamic Civilization   Reference library

John L. Meloy, Ian Straughn, and Donald Whitcomb

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
6,279 words

...been estimated from the earliest years of Islam (in the Negev) to evidence of Wahhabi fundamentalism in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. One of the most problematic elements of mosques is the orientation of the qibla wall. In theory, this wall should be oriented perpendicular to the axis leading toward Mecca; worshipers lined in rows with this wall should all be facing the correct direction of prayer. Determination of this direction has not been an easy matter and a number of mosques show radical changes in orientation as corrections have been...

Medieval Europe

Medieval Europe   Reference library

Chris Scarre, O. H. Creighton, Ken Dark, Matthew H. Johnson, Ken Dark, Matthew H. Johnson, Ken Dark, Matthew H. Johnson, and Alan G. Vince

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
9,818 words

...decline in the scale and design of churches. Antwerp and Milan cathedrals were started at this time, while the Perpendicular style was introduced in Britain, resulting in a number of fine churches, such as Bath Abbey and the nave of Winchester cathedral. Regionalism continued in the fifteenth century, when the earliest Renaissance buildings may be found in Italy. In Germany the Gothic hall church tradition continued, while in England, the Perpendicular chapel of King’s College, Cambridge, and central tower of Canterbury Cathedral show the continuation of this...

Beth-Shean, Roman and Byzantine Period

Beth-Shean, Roman and Byzantine Period   Reference library

Gabriel Mazor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,955 words
Illustration(s):
1

...served the city council as a bouleuterion (council meeting hall). At the southern side of the city a hippodrome was built at the second century c.e. , measuring 886 ft (270 m) in length and 230 ft (70 m) in width (Pl. 1:24). The seats were erected over ramps set within perpendicular walls and substructure vaults. During the fourth century it was partly dismantled, while its western part was turned into an amphitheater, 394 ft (120 m) long and 220 ft (67 m) wide. The tiers were supported by vaults, and the arena had a 10 ft (3 m) high wall adorned by a...

Maya Civilization

Maya Civilization   Reference library

Patricia A. McAnany, Satoru Murata, David Humiston Kelley, Michael D. Coe, Gerardo Aldana, T. Patrick Culbert, Simon Martin, Payson D. Sheets, T. Patrick Culbert, Astrid Runggaldier, George Michaels, Patricia A. McAnany, and Jason Yaeger

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,801 words

...through the ring—no easy feat—translated into an instant win. Although the rules of the “game” are not completely clear and may have varied from place to place, players apparently faced off on either side of a line that ran parallel to the long axis of the court rather than perpendicular to it. Ancient ball players could use only their head, shoulders, and hips. The earliest ball courts in the Maya lowlands—which occur in Belize at Cerros and Colha—were constructed after 400 BC. By AD 250, the ball game occupied a central place in elite society. Often a political...

Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica   Reference library

Charlotte Beck, Thomas W. Killion, Barbara Voorhies, Jon Lohse, D. C. Grove, Arlen F. Chase, Deborah L. Nichols, Frances F. Berdan, Thomas H. Charlton, Janine Gasco, and William R. Fowler

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
15,106 words

...some 21 square miles (55 sq km) and to have held a population of over 147,000 people at its height. Unlike most other Mesoamerican sites of the Classic Period, Teotihuacán is laid out in a broad gridlike pattern with two major perpendicular and linear roadways bisecting each other in the center of this city. Public architecture lines the full distance of the road running north–south; two of the largest pyramids in Mesoamerica, Teotihuacán’s Pyramids of the Sun and Moon, are situated on this roadway. The site also contains architectural complexes that have...

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