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perpendicular distance

The distance from a point to a line or plane measured along the line perpendicular to the line or plane which passes through the given point. It will be the shortest distance between the ...

Ubaid

Ubaid   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,246 words

...Tell al-῾Ubaid, the great oval enclosure wall (85 × 65 m) was probably doubled in the interior by a concentric, smaller enclosure (as at Khafajeh). A rectangular terrace 33 × 26 m was constructed in the center of the enclosure of unbaked plano-convex bricks on a stone socle. Perpendicular to its southeast facade, a staircase with several stone treads gave access to the summit of the terrace. In addition, a small lateral stair, also of stone, was arranged parallel to the southwest facade, which was later incorporated in an annex. The sanctuary itself, which has...

Cities

Cities   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
19,325 words
Illustration(s):
5

...and beginning of the fourth centuries bce , was also enclosed by a city wall. One section, about 12 m long and 2.5 m wide, discovered on the east side of the city, was built of well-dressed local sandstone. The stones were shaped like bricks lying on their sides and were set perpendicular to the wall, like headers. At set intervals they were strengthened by piers of stretchers. At Tell el-Ḥesi, the remains of a wall that enclosed both the early and the later phases of the city were found. According to Bliss, its excavator, the north sides of the buildings of...

Building Materials and Techniques

Building Materials and Techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
17,911 words
Illustration(s):
10

...the use there of wooden posts. [See Beidha .] Wood has also been utilized in more complex structures. In orthogonal (right-angled) units, beams were used for roofing. The main beams were placed at intervals across the room and thinner branches were densely laid over and perpendicular to the beams. The top layer was made of mud or lime mortar. In many cases segments of the mortar, bearing the imprints of branches, are observable in the destruction deposits. Tree trunks were commonly used as columns to support the roof beams of large halls. Stone bases,...

Medieval Europe

Medieval Europe   Reference library

Chris Scarre, O. H. Creighton, Ken Dark, Matthew H. Johnson, Ken Dark, Matthew H. Johnson, Ken Dark, Matthew H. Johnson, and Alan G. Vince

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
9,818 words

...decline in the scale and design of churches. Antwerp and Milan cathedrals were started at this time, while the Perpendicular style was introduced in Britain, resulting in a number of fine churches, such as Bath Abbey and the nave of Winchester cathedral. Regionalism continued in the fifteenth century, when the earliest Renaissance buildings may be found in Italy. In Germany the Gothic hall church tradition continued, while in England, the Perpendicular chapel of King’s College, Cambridge, and central tower of Canterbury Cathedral show the continuation of this...

Capernaum

Capernaum   Reference library

Stefano De Luca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,467 words
Illustration(s):
1

...possesses good acoustic characteristics and could be the scene of Jesus’s preaching from the boat ( Mark 3:9 ). Farther to the northeast, Y. Stepansky has documented remains of an unusual dry stone structure, with a length of about 1,968.5 ft (600 m), from which extend, perpendicular to the coast, 44 irregular arms, 9.8 ft (3 m) distant from one another. These are interpretable as anchorages or, more likely, as the vivaria (fishponds or fish-traps) mentioned in the rabbinical literature under the name bibarim ( m. Beṣah 3:1). In the Byzantine and...

Maya Civilization

Maya Civilization   Reference library

Patricia A. McAnany, Satoru Murata, David Humiston Kelley, Michael D. Coe, Gerardo Aldana, T. Patrick Culbert, Simon Martin, Payson D. Sheets, T. Patrick Culbert, Astrid Runggaldier, George Michaels, Patricia A. McAnany, and Jason Yaeger

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,801 words

...through the ring—no easy feat—translated into an instant win. Although the rules of the “game” are not completely clear and may have varied from place to place, players apparently faced off on either side of a line that ran parallel to the long axis of the court rather than perpendicular to it. Ancient ball players could use only their head, shoulders, and hips. The earliest ball courts in the Maya lowlands—which occur in Belize at Cerros and Colha—were constructed after 400 BC. By AD 250, the ball game occupied a central place in elite society. Often a political...

Sepphoris

Sepphoris   Reference library

Carol Meyers and Eric M. Meyers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,047 words
Illustration(s):
2

...The settlement on the summit spread to the adjacent plateau on the east at some point in the Early Roman period, in the late first or early second century c.e. Two broad streets—an east–west decumanus and a north–south cardo —and several smaller streets parallel and perpendicular to the main thoroughfares created a spacious orthogonal grid with blocks, or insulae , of buildings. The cardo (44.9 ft [13.7 m] wide) is paved with hard white limestone blocks set in diagonal rows. The original pavers, probably dating to the first half of the second...

Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica   Reference library

Charlotte Beck, Thomas W. Killion, Barbara Voorhies, Jon Lohse, D. C. Grove, Arlen F. Chase, Deborah L. Nichols, Frances F. Berdan, Thomas H. Charlton, Janine Gasco, and William R. Fowler

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
15,106 words

...square miles (55 sq km) and to have held a population of over 147,000 people at its height. Unlike most other Mesoamerican sites of the Classic Period, Teotihuacán is laid out in a broad gridlike pattern with two major perpendicular and linear roadways bisecting each other in the center of this city. Public architecture lines the full distance of the road running north–south; two of the largest pyramids in Mesoamerica, Teotihuacán’s Pyramids of the Sun and Moon, are situated on this roadway. The site also contains architectural complexes that have been...

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