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permanent establishment

Most tax treaties operate so that business profits are taxed in the country of the taxpayer’s residence, unless the taxpayer has a ‘permanent establishment’ in the other territory. In the ...

Wealth

Wealth   Reference library

Noam Maggor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...social relations of dependence declined and property qualifications for voting were gradually eliminated, it appeared that no permanent concentration of wealth could safely endure for long. Despite this transformation, wealthy Americans have nonetheless been able to forge resilient fortunes and transfer them effectively across generations. Against political and legal challenges, they made lasting concentrations of wealth into a permanent feature of American society. The emergence of an affluent elite in an American republican context was nowhere more visible...

Jamestown

Jamestown   Reference library

Marion C. Nelson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Company was soon revoked. Subsequently the English prevailed over the Indians, but Jamestown still failed to thrive. Burned during Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676 , it never fully recovered. Jamestown has always stood for more than its on-the-ground realities would suggest. The establishment in 1619 of a representative legislative assembly inspired Jamestown’s later grand claims to be “cradle of the republic” and “birthplace of a nation.” These “Jamestown before the Mayflower” claims were always aimed straight at New England . Regional passions have mellowed,...

Feminist Reforms in the Progressive Era, Maternal

Feminist Reforms in the Progressive Era, Maternal   Reference library

Elisabeth Israels Perry

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Associations (YMCA and YWCA). Coalitions sent representatives to lobby state and federal officials on maternal feminist agendas. Some Results of Maternal Feminist Reform Campaigns. Maternal feminist reformers achieved a number of victories. Especially notable were the establishment of mothers’ pensions, laws forbidding child labor, and agencies for female and child welfare. They also won passage in 1921 of the Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infancy Protection Act. Mothers’ Pensions. Along with temperance, “child saving,” as it was then called, held a...

Hospitals and Dispensaries

Hospitals and Dispensaries   Reference library

Bernadette McCauley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...from hospital administrations, began to organize in the 1950 s. In 1974 , federal prohibitions on striking by hospital workers were lifted. Financial issues were central to further hospital development. Greater federal involvement in hospital finances resulted from the establishment in 1965 of the Medicare and Medicaid programs, which reimbursed hospitals for the care of the elderly and the poor. In the 1970 s and 1980 s, as hospital costs climbed, many voluntary hospitals merged in efforts to cut costs, creating regional and national chains. The...

Missions, Foreign

Missions, Foreign   Reference library

Stephen C. Dove

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...up more than half of all U.S. missionaries. As early as 1822 the ABCFM commissioned Betsey Stockton , a single woman and former slave, as a missionary to the Sandwich Islands ( Hawai ‘i). As an African American woman, Stockton was an exception among the white missionary establishment, but her desire to spread Christianity abroad was not unique among African Americans. Beginning in the 1820 s, African American churches, too, sponsored missionary efforts, especially to Africa, where many of the earliest African American missionaries were also part of...

Puerto Rican Americans

Puerto Rican Americans   Reference library

Arlene Torres

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...festivals, and commemorative events in honor of community leaders, activists, and organizations founded to address a wide array of sociopolitical concerns in both Puerto Rico and the continental United States . A history of social and political activism is reflected in the establishment of organizations including the Centro de Estudios Puertorriqueños (Center for Puerto Rican Studies, at Hunter College, City University of New York ), Aspira, Inc., the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund, and the National Congress for Puerto Rican Rights. Puerto...

Philanthropy and Women, Contemporary and Historical

Philanthropy and Women, Contemporary and Historical   Reference library

Zeynep Şahin-Mencütek

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,498 words

...philanthropic activities possible. Since the early days of Islam, Muslim women's traditional philanthropic activities have involved caring for the poor, widows, and orphans; assisting marriages monetarily; freeing slaves; endowing religious foundations; donating sums to the establishment of mosques, religious schools, fountains, and soup kitchens; and undertaking other forms of charity. Women also play substantial roles in service provision of philanthropic organizations. The first well-known woman Muslim philanthropist is the first Muslim, Khadīja, the wife...

Colonial Era

Colonial Era   Reference library

Charles L. Cohen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...south of New England were not ethnically English. The religious structure differed markedly from Britain’s as well, most notably in its denominational diversity and the Church of England’s failure to achieve exclusive status. Pluralism diluted the power of religious establishments, facilitated the growth of religious liberty, and, combined with settlers’ tendency to move beyond clerical oversight, exploded the presumption that everyone in a vicinity had to (or would) join a particular faith. In the face of voluntary church membership, ministers...

Labor Movements

Labor Movements   Reference library

Robert H. Zieger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the campaign to reelect Roosevelt and to support Democratic candidates in industrial states, which reinforced its link to federal agencies. Especially after the Wagner Act’s validation by the U.S. Supreme Court in May 1937 , a friendly NLRB played a significant role in the establishment of industrial unionism in the nation’s industrial heartland. During World War II ( 1939 – 1945 ), government policies assumed an even larger role in the labor movement’s organizing and bargaining programs. By the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941...

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism   Reference library

Gwynn Kessler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,535 words

...Stryker, 2006 , p. 7; Valentine, 2007 , p. 24). The reasons behind the relative success, establishment, institutionalization, and entrenchment of queer theory and queer studies relative to the “newness” of transgender theory and transgender studies in academic settings need to be interrogated. Transgender Studies. The publication of The Transgender Studies Reader , edited by Susan Stryker and Stephen Whittle, in 2006 marks an important step toward the establishment and institutionalization of transgender studies in academic settings. The compilation’s...

Cities and Suburbs

Cities and Suburbs   Reference library

Margaret Pugh O’Mara

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...owners, managers, and professionals moved to more spacious, well-appointed houses located at some distance from their places of work. In New York City, the development of elite residential districts pushed urbanization north from the crowded tip of Lower Manhattan. The establishment by the 1830 s of regular ferry service to Brooklyn encouraged its development as a middle-class residential area—making Brooklyn the United States ’ first commuter suburb. Social Structure. The large-scale global migrations prompted by the Industrial Revolution brought new...

Antebellum Reform

Antebellum Reform   Reference library

Julie Holcomb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...render the unruly, uneducated, and dangerous classes trustworthy. Of the “Sisterhood of Reforms,” education brought together the most diverse group of supporters—people who held out hope that human character could be shaped by a rational system of education. Prior to the establishment of public schools, education was a private, voluntary matter. In the early nineteenth century, Sunday schools, for example, were opened in larger cities such as New York and Philadelphia . These privately funded schools were open only on Sundays, when the factories were...

African Americans

African Americans   Reference library

Joe W. Trotter Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...founded in 1909 . Urbanization and northern migration profoundly affected African American cultural life as well. Black churches, including those of the Baptist, Pentecostal, and African Methodist Episcopal (AME) denominations, ranging from struggling storefronts to large establishments with thousands of members, provided spiritual and social support to urban newcomers. From the black communities of New Orleans , Kansas City, Chicago , and other cities emerged vibrant new adaptations of musical traditions rooted in the past, including ragtime, gospel,...

Nineteenth-Century Westward

Nineteenth-Century Westward  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

...to childbearing and child rearing. They early organized antislavery societies and temperance associations. As settlement expanded out onto the Plains after the Civil War, they found themselves more isolated in a larger landscape. There they became the important movers in the establishment of schools and churches. In the wide expanses of the West, they sometimes found economic and political advantage. Western states were the first to grant the vote to women, beginning with Wyoming ( 1890 ), Colorado ( 1893 ), and Utah and Idaho ( 1896 ). The scarcity of women offered...

Ḥajj, Women's Patronage of

Ḥajj, Women's Patronage of   Reference library

Marina Tolmacheva and Robert R. Bianchi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
4,066 words

...Women's Patronage of . [ This entry includes two subentries: Historical Practice , and Contemporary Practice .] Historical Practice While pilgrimage to Mecca is one of the obligatory duties required of Muslims, ḥajj patronage and the creation of pious establishments supporting it fall under the category of voluntary Muslim “good works” (khayrāt ). Muslim women's patronage history has been mostly explored in such areas as charity and pious endowments ( waqf  ), and is especially well documented for the Ottoman period. Wealthy commoners, as well as...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

Peter W. Williams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...States : here missions and military presidios both represented—sometimes in tension—the imperial presence. The most comprehensive effort to Christianize the natives did not take place until the latter days of the Spanish presence, when the Franciscan Junípero Serra began the establishment in 1769 of what ultimately became twenty-one mission states between present-day San Francisco and San Diego . Indians who were persuaded to join these communities were obliged to embrace a settled agricultural existence along with the Christian religion. The failure of...

Education

Education   Reference library

Benjamin Justice

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of private and family responsibility for formal education. In the early decades of Virginia , for example, high rates of mortality, low rates of female (or whole-family) immigration, low population density, and a short-term focus on land speculation and development made the establishment and staffing of established Anglican churches difficult, let alone the creation (or requirement) of schools. Viewed in terms of its religious and economic significance, formal education outside large population centers lacked the same popular demand and colonial-level...

Immigration

Immigration   Reference library

Rudolph J. Vecoli and Donna R. Gabaccia

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of competing imperial ambition and capitalist enterprise. Imperialism required the voluntary and involuntary migrations of labor to exploit resources, to build markets, transportation networks, and other infrastructures, and to operate agricultural, commercial, and industrial establishments. The Spanish who planted Saint Augustine , Florida , in 1565 and established early settlements in the Southwest came as conquerors and missionaries several decades before the English arrived at Jamestown in 1607 . French, Dutch, Swedish and Finnish, and Russian colonizers...

Gender Construction

Gender Construction   Reference library

Natana J. DeLong-Bas, Fadwa El Guindi, and Adis Duderija

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,130 words

...in the Medinan verses. Stowasser ( 1994 ) also observes that all of the Qurʾānic legislation related to the Prophet's wives dates to the last six or seven years of his life, when he served as head of state in Medina, suggesting that these regulations had more to do with the establishment of a state hierarchy and elite status than with spirituality per se. Although the result was increasing levels of restraints on women, male interpreters posited this as symbolic of the “perfecting” of Islamic society. Many Qurʾānic passages address equality and reciprocity...

Religious Participation

Religious Participation   Reference library

Jo-Ann Scurlock, Jo-Ann Scurlock, Susan Ackerman, Lynn Lidonnici, Darja Šterbenc Erker, Alicia D. Myers, Ross S. Kraemer, and Lily Vuong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
29,647 words

... (see also 27:2 ) stems from a strand in biblical thought that understands the tent of meeting not to be the place where Yahweh permanently resides, and where God’s presence is permanently manifest, but rather a place where Yahweh can appear as needed. So too are Iron Age Israel’s regional sanctuaries best understood as sites where Yahweh could be venerated, and where the deity might appear, but not where Yahweh permanently dwelt. These sanctuaries, which were scattered throughout ancient Israel and Judah at locations that were, say, within a 25–30 km...

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