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permanent establishment

Most tax treaties operate so that business profits are taxed in the country of the taxpayer’s residence, unless the taxpayer has a ‘permanent establishment’ in the other territory. In the ...

oceanographic institutions

oceanographic institutions   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,507 words

...in the late nineteenth century. Norway channeled its marine research effort into specialist fisheries institutions. Scandinavian scientists soon perceived the need for more broadly based and coordinated studies of fisheries and related problems. Their initiative led to the establishment of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea in 1900 . The ICES inspired the creation of national laboratories and a short-lived ( 1902–1908 ) Central Laboratory in Christiania (Oslo) that paid special attention to the development of apparatus. Until 1900 ...

anatomical theaters

anatomical theaters   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
721 words

...as a theatrical event. These norms disciplined and structured a didactic experience; ritualized and hence domesticated a practice that might have been perceived as sacrilegious and inhumane; and solemnly celebrated the prestige and learning of the university and the medical establishment. The first description of an anatomical theatre occurs in Alessandro Benedetti 's Historia corporis humani ( 1502 ). Benedetti recommended that a temporary wooden theater with seats arranged in a circle be built in a large and well-ventilated space. Spectators should be...

national parks and nature reserves

national parks and nature reserves   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
603 words

...parks and nature reserves . The establishment of national parks as areas of land set aside for public use originated in the United States during the second half of the nineteenth century. The concept responded to the cultural influence of the nature romantics and transcendentalists, the environmental effects of rapid industrialization, the unveiling of spectacular, unspoiled landscapes in the rapid westward expansion of the United States, the rise of tourism, the negative example of the ruthless commercial exploitation of Niagara Falls, and businesses,...

institute

institute   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,214 words

...a limited degree, for research. Their maintenance required workrooms; their use for instructional demonstrations, lecture rooms. Initially privately owned, cabinets were placed on the university (state) budget by 1850 . The evolution of cabinet to institute depended upon the establishment of university laboratories and the inauguration of the professorial research ethos in the early nineteenth century. Institutes were thus the principal venue through which the manual practices associated with experimental research became a regular part of university instruction...

Asia

Asia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,976 words

...microbiology at Nha Trang from the 1880s; but it had almost no local educational infrastructure. Well-informed authorities such as Gaston Darboux , permanent secretary of the Académie des sciences in Paris, tried to encourage more forward-looking policies, but the retrograde views of French colonial authorities in Vietnam prevented both the permanent establishment of a university (at Hanoi) and even a permanent scientific mission of French scientists until 1917 . Vietnamese had no opportunity to study modern science before 1920 ; some historians say that as...

advancement of science, national associations for the

advancement of science, national associations for the   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,242 words

...of the Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science, 1948–1980 (1987). Roy MacLeod , ed., The Commonwealth of Science: ANZAAS and the Scientific Enterprise in Australasia, 1888–1988 (1988). Sally Gregory Kohlstedt , Michael M. Sokal , and Bruce V. Lewenstein , The Establishment of Science in America: 150 Years of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1999). Sally Gregory...

Europe and Russia

Europe and Russia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,801 words

...Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in the 1970s. Based in Heidelberg, it boasted four affiliated facilities elsewhere in Europe, and more than a dozen member nations. Where the lengthy lead times for particle experiments dictated a large permanent staff along with a steady stream of visiting researchers at CERN, EMBL had few permanent staff and visiting appointments lasting several years at most before the researcher returned to a home institution. It aimed not so much to transcend national boundaries by means of a single institution as to ensure steady...

Hale, George Ellery

Hale, George Ellery (1868–1938)   Reference library

Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...he helped design, he discovered the role of magnetic fields in sunspot structure. Hale was not only important for American astronomy but also played a leading role in the establishment of general institutions supporting science in the United States. After World War I, he worked to make the National Academy of Sciences more significant nationally through the construction of a permanent building in Washington, D.C. In an effort to link the federal government to the scientific expertise of the country, Hale also was a driving force behind the creation of the...

Agriculture, U.S. Department of

Agriculture, U.S. Department of   Reference library

Richard C. Sawyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Act of 1914 , which formed the Extension Service as a cooperative program of the USDA and land-grant colleges. The USDA became a cabinet-level department in 1889 . Secretary James Wilson ( 1897–1913 ) oversaw the expansion of scientific work in the bureaus, the establishment of federal experiment stations in new territories such as Hawai‘i and Puerto Rico, and the introduction of new crops and varieties by the “plant explorer” David Fairchild. Henry C. Wallace ( 1921–1923 ) increased the department’s work in agricultural economics, recognizing...

Veterinary Medicine

Veterinary Medicine   Reference library

Susan D. Jones

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...through the 1930s (largely because of the Depression and the school closures), but this was reversed by the developments of the 1940s and 1950s: the establishment of new veterinary schools after World War II, the discovery of new therapeutics, and the rise of intensive animal production (also known as “factory farming”). Returning World War II veterans played a key role in demanding the establishment of new veterinary schools in state land-grant universities such as those in California, Georgia, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Oklahoma and...

Tuskegee project, the

Tuskegee project, the   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...from scientific pursuits that ignored human values” (Jones, p. 14). In sum, the Tuskegee study was a catalytic event in medical research history, the ramifications of which have not yet been thoroughly explored. The Tuskegee study created a deep-rooted mistrust of the medical establishment that still persists among African Americans. See also Human Subjects in Medical Experiments ; Medical Values and Ethics Bibliography Brandt, Allan M. , and Lara Freidenfelds . “Commentary Research Ethics after World War II: The Insular Culture of Biomedicine.” Kennedy...

Genetics and Genetic Engineering

Genetics and Genetic Engineering   Reference library

Melinda Gormley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...for Biology for 15 years before losing his job because of Nazi laws, and in 1936 he moved permanently to the United States. German émigré geneticists Curt Stern and Ernst Caspari also relocated permanently to the United States, in 1932 and 1938 , respectively. Important to the growth and development of genetics was the small size and close ties between members of this international community. In addition to a number of foreign geneticists permanently relocating to the United States, many participated in exchange programs, spending extended periods...

Public Health

Public Health   Reference library

Jennifer Koslow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...States in the 1860s. Understanding transmission altered civic strategies. Preventing an epidemic of cholera now appeared feasible. Based on this reorientation, the New York state legislature passed the New York Metropolitan Health Act of 1866 , which authorized the establishment of a permanent board of health for New York City and invested it with police powers. The resultant Metropolitan Board of Health provided an administrative model for other cities. Epidemics of yellow fever also resulted in thousands of deaths in the nineteenth century. Spread by...

Military, Science and Technology and The

Military, Science and Technology and The   Reference library

Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the telegraph, and the steamboat, found military applications, but attempts to harness science and technology for the conflict met with little immediate success. The establishment of the National Academy of Sciences as the official science advisor to the federal government created a new institution, but it did little to affect the conflict. Nor was the Navy’s Permanent Commission either permanent or effective. Iron-clad ships such as the Merrimac and Monitor foreshadowed a future of warfare between such vessels ( Mindell, 2000 ). Individual inventors, some...

Science

Science   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers, Simon Baatz, James Rodger Fleming, Judith R. Goodstein, and Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and engineering. Religious conservatives’ resistance to such scientific theories as geological chronology and biological evolution had no lasting negative impact on science. Most notably, the federal government and a reformed university system became major players in the establishment of a national infrastructure supporting science in America. Early National and Antebellum Eras. In 1782 the new nation could boast of one scientist of international repute (Benjamin Franklin, whose 1751 Experiments and Observations on Electricity was widely translated...

War and Medicine

War and Medicine   Reference library

Dale Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...would follow in the winter and spring. The military medical establishment, like the entire army, was reduced following the war and then recreated in 1812 . American military physicians during the War of 1812 faced the same professional, mobilization, and command and control issues that existed during the Revolution. After the war the commanding general, Jacob Brown, and the secretary of war, J. C. Calhoun, convinced Congress to establish as part of the reorganization of the army a permanent medical service. In 1818 the Army Medical Department was...

military, the, And technology

military, the, And technology   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...United States has made a massive commitment to new weapons, continual innovation, and carefully chosen interventions. The Cold War system seems to be continuing with somewhat new alignments and with much less stability than the Soviet-West stalemate. Meanwhile, the military establishments of all the industrial powers, from China to NATO, rush the latest technologies and their associated doctrines into action while researchers explore the military potential of dozens of new areas, including nanotechnology, biotechnology, lasers, small nuclear munitions,...

Anatomy and Human Dissection

Anatomy and Human Dissection   Reference library

Susan C. Lawrence

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...study in the United States. The discipline of anatomy most likely arrived in the British colonies in books imported from the United Kingdom and continental Europe. Such illustrated texts would have served apprentices, informal students, and the self-taught until the establishment of home-grown medical schools. At the same time, colonists brought British laws that allowed for the occasional dissection of the bodies of executed criminals for educational purposes. Thus, Massachusetts granted the privilege “to anatomize…some malefactor” to students of...

Race And Medicine

Race And Medicine   Reference library

Karen Kruse Thomas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...doctors. Forty years after it began, the study was finally revealed publicly through the media and congressional hearings. Beyond the tragic consequences for its victims and their families, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study compromised blacks’ trust in both the health-care establishment and the government in general for decades afterward. Federal Health Programs and the Medical Civil Rights Movement. In contrast, black faith in the federal government and its eventual recognition of blacks as full citizens reached an all-time high during and after World War...

Foundations and Health

Foundations and Health   Reference library

Kevin A. Walters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...But even prior to that reform movement, other legal interpretations had begun to pave the way for the creation of bigger, private foundations. In Massachusetts, for example, the capital accumulation of Boston merchants, combined with the evangelical spirit of the Protestant establishment, led to a groundswell of family trusts and religious charities. The State Supreme Court freed the hand of these organizations when it ruled in 1829 that trustees who acted within reasonable standards of prudence and discretion could not be held negligent if the market value...

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