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permanent establishment

Most tax treaties operate so that business profits are taxed in the country of the taxpayer’s residence, unless the taxpayer has a ‘permanent establishment’ in the other territory. In the ...

United Nations

United Nations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...The main UN decision-making body is the Security Council, comprising fifteen states, five of whom (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) are permanent members. The remaining ten are elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms. Decisions of the Security Council on nonprocedural issues require at least nine votes, including those of all permanent members, and are binding on all members. The United Nations is at the center of a network of fourteen specialized agencies and over thirty other bodies, which are international...

World Heritage Sites

World Heritage Sites   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Its twenty-one members are elected for six-year terms on a rotating basis by all signatories at biennial General Assemblies. The Committee has no permanent members; all principal regions of the world are represented. Between meetings, its business is supervised by an elected chair, and conducted by a permanent staff, known as the “World Heritage Centre.” The work of the Committee is also assisted by three nongovernmental expert advisory bodies—the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and...

Forestation

Forestation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...forest area from which the trees have recently been harvested or removed by natural disturbance (e.g., fire, insects, wind, disease, or landslide). The term implies forest replacement by some means other than natural regeneration (natural seed-fall, germination, and seedling establishment). Afforestation is forestation on lands that have not previously supported forest plant communities, or not for a long time. Forestation is undertaken when the natural processes of forest renewal are not working, are expected to work unacceptably slowly, or will result in a...

Forestation

Forestation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,839 words
Illustration(s):
1

...forest area from which the trees have recently been harvested or removed by natural disturbance (e.g., fire, insects, wind, disease, or landslide). The term implies forest replacement by some means other than natural regeneration (natural seed fall, germination, and seedling establishment). This term is similar to affore station , which refers to forestation on lands that have not previously supported forest plant communities, or not for a long time. A third term, reforestation , has the same meaning as forestation . Forestation is a practice that is...

Urban Trends

Urban Trends   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...the United States: (1) a permanent moratorium on major road construction and expansion; (2) increased funding for railways, especially AMTRAK; (3) a moratorium on additional sprawl; (4) a focus by federal, state, and local governments on smart growth and transit-oriented development; (5) tripling of mileage standards for vehicles; (6) a moratorium on airport construction and expansion; (7) a moratorium on construction of coal-fired and nuclear power plants; (8) rapid construction of solar and wind-electric capacity; (9) establishment of organic farms in every...

Tundra

Tundra   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,840 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Change in the Tundra Tundra ecosystems are becoming increasingly threatened by human activity. Greater accessibility and awareness of vast natural resources have resulted in increased settlement in the Arctic. The development of transport routes and oil pipelines and the establishment of extractive industries have sometimes produced large impacts on the tundra, fragmenting wilderness areas. Slow-growing, long-lived plants with low replacement rates, which often already experience the multiple stresses of severe climates and limited resources, are...

Heathlands

Heathlands   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...to be a useful grazing plant where the more palatable and nutritious grasses were scarce, particularly in winter when other forage was unavailable. The herbivores themselves tended to stimulate the production of edible green shoots by the heather plants and to prevent the establishment of tree seedlings. Where grazing intensity was insufficient for these purposes, recourse was made from time to time to the use of fire as a means of management. Hence the origin of most heathlands in western Europe was anthropogenic. Although only a few have an unbroken...

Heathlands

Heathlands   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...to be a useful grazing plant where the more palatable and nutritious grasses were scarce, particularly in winter when other forage was unavailable. The herbivores themselves tended to stimulate the production of edible green shoots by the heather plants and to prevent the establishment of tree seedlings. Where grazing intensity was insufficient for these purposes, fire was sometimes used. Hence most heathlands in western Europe were anthropogenic. Although only a few have an unbroken history extending over 3,000 years or more, the process of forest clearance...

Mediterranean Environments

Mediterranean Environments   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...and pollen evidence reveals the part played by humans in determining the characteristic vegetation patterns of the region from about 6,000 bp on. Deciduous oak woodland is known to have become degraded and replaced by evergreen oak, juniper, and pine as a result of the establishment of agriculture and livestock. In eastern Spain, pine forest is replaced by oak scrub following clearance. In the eastern Mediterranean, the domestication and widespread introduction of the triad of wheat, olive, and vine, along with the cultivation of other trees such as...

Ozone

Ozone   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...using the TOMS ( Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer ); these show increases in UV-B fluxes at latitudes above 35°, in agreement with the observed ozone decreases. As a result of such observations, public interest in UV exposure has been addressed in many countries by the establishment of a standardized UV index to provide daily information about the intensity of UV radiation based on ozone measurements and weather forecasting. Tropospheric Ozone Until the 1970s, photochemical production of ozone in the troposphere was considered to be important only in...

Nuclear Industry

Nuclear Industry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,102 words
Illustration(s):
1

...have an accurate inventory of its nuclear waste and does not know where all of it is. A “best guess” is that in 1996 there were approximately 610 million cubic meters of solid waste, of different activity levels, much of it poorly stored on open ground or at radiochemical establishments. Meanwhile, thousands of nuclear weapons are being decommissioned and metric tons of plutonium and weapons-grade uranium added to existing stocks. There is a chronic shortage of facilities for the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel, and the explosion of a tank at Tomsk...

Boreal Forests and Climate Change

Boreal Forests and Climate Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
6,309 words
Illustration(s):
3

...). Temperature increases of 1–2°C during the growing season at treeline increase the growth of white spruce on favorable sites ( Danby and Hik , 2007a ). If problems of long-distance transport of seed and the low receptivity of tundra as a tree seedbed are overcome, forest establishment and treeline movement occur suddenly where moisture is not limiting ( Danby and Hik , 2007b ). But even at some cold treeline sites, moisture is limiting, and the growth of many populations of trees is decreasing as the temperature increases ( Wilmking and Juday , 2005...

Human Impacts

Human Impacts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...efforts, but even in less disturbed environments vigorous aliens and exotics also pose significant threats to endemic species. Human society has begun to see the global benefits of natural ecosystems, and world opinion is changing in favor of sustainable development and the establishment of protected areas and habitat reserves. See also Animal Husbandry ; Biological Diversity ; Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution ; Electrical Power Generation ; Fishing ; Hazardous Waste ; Mining ; Nuclear Hazards ; Ocean Disposal ; Pest Management ;...

Amazonia, Deforestation Of

Amazonia, Deforestation Of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,326 words
Illustration(s):
2

...into the rest of the human economy in such a way that economic forces act to maintain rather than to destroy the forest (Fearnside, 1997d). One of the major challenges to finding rational uses for Amazonian forest lies in gathering and interpreting relevant information. The establishment of environmental services of the forest as a basis for sustainable development is, perhaps, the area in which information is most critical. A better understanding of the dynamics of deforestation and of deforestation's impacts on biodiversity, carbon storage, and water cycling...

Environmental Economics

Environmental Economics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...market exchanges, they put forward an array of more and less radical policies to restructure the market economy along more communal and egalitarian lines. This line of thought has strongly resonated within ecological economics and has been used to reinforce arguments for the establishment of humanistic “steady-state” and “bioeconomic” economic and social systems (Lutz and Lux, 1988). Ecological economists lay great stress on the need for a historical perspective on socioeconomic–natural systems interactions, in order to progress the analysis and debate on the...

Ozone

Ozone   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
6,530 words
Illustration(s):
7

...from satellite observation using the TOMS instrument; these show increases in UV-B fluxes at latitudes poleward of 35°, in agreement with the observed ozone decreases. As a result of such observations, public interest in UV exposure has been addressed in many countries by the establishment of a standardized UV index to provide daily information about the intensity of UV radiation based on ozone measurements and weather forecasting. Tropospheric Ozone Until the 1970s, photochemical production of ozone in the troposphere was considered to be important only in...

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