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permanent establishment

Most tax treaties operate so that business profits are taxed in the country of the taxpayer’s residence, unless the taxpayer has a ‘permanent establishment’ in the other territory. In the ...

germ plasm bank

germ plasm bank  

An establishment concerned primarily with the conservation of hereditary genetic material which may be lost through the process of genetic erosion. Germ plasm loss is a major concern in Asia, parts ...
germ plasm bank

germ plasm bank   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Plant Sciences (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
87 words

...plasm bank An establishment concerned primarily with the conservation of hereditary genetic material which may be lost through the process of genetic erosion. Germ plasm loss is a major concern in Asia, parts of Africa, southern Europe, and countries bordering the Mediterranean, where antiquated cultivars are rapidly replaced by new varieties. With the loss of older cultivars, qualities possessed by them may be lost permanently, and so cannot become incorporated in new varieties. Gene banks are an important source of germ...

oceanographic institutions

oceanographic institutions   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,507 words

...in the late nineteenth century. Norway channeled its marine research effort into specialist fisheries institutions. Scandinavian scientists soon perceived the need for more broadly based and coordinated studies of fisheries and related problems. Their initiative led to the establishment of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea in 1900 . The ICES inspired the creation of national laboratories and a short-lived ( 1902–1908 ) Central Laboratory in Christiania (Oslo) that paid special attention to the development of apparatus. Until 1900 ...

anatomical theaters

anatomical theaters   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
721 words

...as a theatrical event. These norms disciplined and structured a didactic experience; ritualized and hence domesticated a practice that might have been perceived as sacrilegious and inhumane; and solemnly celebrated the prestige and learning of the university and the medical establishment. The first description of an anatomical theatre occurs in Alessandro Benedetti 's Historia corporis humani ( 1502 ). Benedetti recommended that a temporary wooden theater with seats arranged in a circle be built in a large and well-ventilated space. Spectators should be...

national parks and nature reserves

national parks and nature reserves   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
603 words

...parks and nature reserves . The establishment of national parks as areas of land set aside for public use originated in the United States during the second half of the nineteenth century. The concept responded to the cultural influence of the nature romantics and transcendentalists, the environmental effects of rapid industrialization, the unveiling of spectacular, unspoiled landscapes in the rapid westward expansion of the United States, the rise of tourism, the negative example of the ruthless commercial exploitation of Niagara Falls, and businesses,...

Emu

Emu   Reference library

The New Encyclopedia of Birds

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,411 words
Illustration(s):
2

...found where native vegetation has been cleared to provide agricultural land. Whatever the habitat, the emu must have access to fresh water, usually every day. Emus have probably benefited from man's activities in inland Australia, because the establishment of watering points for cattle and sheep has provided permanent water where there was none before. So much of Australia is unoccupied or used as open rangeland that the emu is in no danger of extinction. One curious episode in emu–human relations occurred in 1932 . Prompted by fears of mass incursions onto...

institute

institute   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,214 words

...a limited degree, for research. Their maintenance required workrooms; their use for instructional demonstrations, lecture rooms. Initially privately owned, cabinets were placed on the university (state) budget by 1850 . The evolution of cabinet to institute depended upon the establishment of university laboratories and the inauguration of the professorial research ethos in the early nineteenth century. Institutes were thus the principal venue through which the manual practices associated with experimental research became a regular part of university instruction...

Asia

Asia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,976 words

...microbiology at Nha Trang from the 1880s; but it had almost no local educational infrastructure. Well-informed authorities such as Gaston Darboux , permanent secretary of the Académie des sciences in Paris, tried to encourage more forward-looking policies, but the retrograde views of French colonial authorities in Vietnam prevented both the permanent establishment of a university (at Hanoi) and even a permanent scientific mission of French scientists until 1917 . Vietnamese had no opportunity to study modern science before 1920 ; some historians say that as...

wetlands

wetlands   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Wetlands are areas that are permanently or periodically inundated by water that support ecological habitats adapted to wet conditions. As defined by an international convention on wetland conservation in 1971 , wetlands are ‘areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres’. This broad definition covers an extensive range of habitats from coral reefs to...

development and growth: early childhood

development and growth: early childhood   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,070 words
Illustration(s):
1

...one or more adults. This secure bond allows children to broaden their horizons and explore the world with confidence. Failure to develop appropriate learned patterns in early life can cause permanent disruption to the child's later emotional responses. Re-learning or restructuring of these learned processes is possible but difficult to achieve in later life. The establishment of the interneural connections associated with this learning requires the provision of an adequate supply of nutrients for brain growth as well as the environmental stimuli from the...

advancement of science, national associations for the

advancement of science, national associations for the   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,242 words

...of the Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science, 1948–1980 (1987). Roy MacLeod , ed., The Commonwealth of Science: ANZAAS and the Scientific Enterprise in Australasia, 1888–1988 (1988). Sally Gregory Kohlstedt , Michael M. Sokal , and Bruce V. Lewenstein , The Establishment of Science in America: 150 Years of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1999). Sally Gregory...

dissection

dissection   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,511 words

...preservation techniques, there are several museums of human anatomy today containing permanent displays of beautifully dissected specimens. Among the finest and most comprehensive of these is the Wellcome museum of anatomy at the Royal College of Surgeons of England in London. The study of human anatomy by dissection remains, today, an integral part of the basic undergraduate curriculum in medical schools the world over. A relatively recent innovation is the establishment of centres where experienced surgeons can revise and refine their anatomical knowledge...

Europe and Russia

Europe and Russia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,801 words

...Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in the 1970s. Based in Heidelberg, it boasted four affiliated facilities elsewhere in Europe, and more than a dozen member nations. Where the lengthy lead times for particle experiments dictated a large permanent staff along with a steady stream of visiting researchers at CERN, EMBL had few permanent staff and visiting appointments lasting several years at most before the researcher returned to a home institution. It aimed not so much to transcend national boundaries by means of a single institution as to ensure steady...

Observatories

Observatories   Reference library

Yavuz Unat and Salim Ayduz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
3,408 words

...astronomers. The desire to begin systematic—and accurate—astronomical data collection led naturally to the need for observatories. The most important reason for the establishment of observatories was the increasing size of the instruments required for observation and thus the need to house them. Although Islamic observatories were mostly founded by rulers, they were not considered permanent institutions and for the most part were short-lived. Rather than primarily institutions of astrological study, Islamic observatories were scientific institutions devoted...

deafness

deafness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,286 words
Illustration(s):
2

...à l'usage de ceux qui entendent et qui parlent . Inspired by this work, in the nineteenth century sign-based education spread rapidly, though more easily in some countries than in others. Towards the end of the nineteenth century the tide turned. A leading figure in the re-establishment of speech-based education was Alexander Graham Bell , best known for his invention of the telephone. Bell had a deaf mother, worked initially as a teacher of the deaf, and subsequently married a deaf woman. Bell feared that the high rate of intermarriage among the deaf would...

Voles and Lemmings

Voles and Lemmings   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
5,245 words
Illustration(s):
7

...In the fall, with the freezing of the ground and withering of the sedges, there is a seasonal movement back to sheltered places in the alpine zone. Lemmings are particularly vulnerable at this time: should freezing rain and frost blanket the vegetation with ice before the establishment of snow cover, the difficulties in gathering food can prove fatal. The mass migrations that have made the Norway lemming famous usually begin in the summer or fall following a period of rapid population growth. The migrations start as a gradual movement from densely populated...

Institutions of Science Education

Institutions of Science Education   Reference library

Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu and Marco Demichelis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
8,676 words

...of learning, as George Makdisi notes in his study of the madrasah ’s historical development ( 1981 ). The madrasah , which he refers to as a “college,” was exclusively devoted to the teaching of religious sciences, whereas secular scientific subjects were studied in private establishments. Aydın Sayılı adopts Goldziher’s supposition that Muslim theologians valued only those branches of learning that grew directly from their religion ( Sayılı 1941 ). Other sciences (e.g., the sciences of the ancients) that had their origins in foreign sources were regarded...

Guenons, Macaques, and Baboons

Guenons, Macaques, and Baboons   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
13,628 words
Illustration(s):
9

...items and to devise their own preparation methods; other juveniles and adult females have learned from these young entrepreneurs, but adult males do so less readily. This transmission of information is a crucial function of group living: the troop is primarily an educational establishment. Species that live near water use aquatic foods. Japanese macaque troops living by the seashore have recently incorporated seaweeds into their diet. The crab‐eating macaque (an alternative name for the long‐tailed macaque) is so‐called for good reason; hamadryas baboons living...

temporary benchmark

temporary benchmark   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...around the site. Using automatic levels , the temporary benchmark can check ground levels, excavation levels, and heights of structures etc. The height of the temporary benchmark is established by calculating its level in relation to an ordnance benchmark , which is a permanent establishment with a known...

TAI

TAI   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...astronomical motions, that the need for an International Atomic Time (TAI) scale is a consequence of the atomic definition of the second, that several international organizations have ensured and are still successfully ensuring the establishment of the time scales based on astronomical motions, particularly thanks to the permanent services of the Bureau International de l'Heure (BIH)… that the BIH has started to establish an atomic time scale of recognized quality and proven usefulness, that the atomic frequency standards for realizing the second have been...

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