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permanent establishment

Most tax treaties operate so that business profits are taxed in the country of the taxpayer’s residence, unless the taxpayer has a ‘permanent establishment’ in the other territory. In the ...

McAlpin, James

McAlpin, James (d. 1732)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
418 words

...minister of Carnwath in 1692 , but lost his living in a moral scandal three years later and moved permanently to the north of Ireland. He was rehabilitated as a preacher in 1711 , and from 1714 was minister at Ballynahinch. Between his two ministerial appointments he conducted an academy or ‘philosophy school’ for the sons of dissenters at Killyleagh, County Down ( 1697–1714 ). Its existence and legality were resented by the local Episcopalian establishment, who tried by various shifts to have it suppressed. Francis Hutcheson , whose uncle was minister at...

Herschel, Frederick William

Herschel, Frederick William (1738–1822)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
830 words

...’, British Journal for the History of Science , vol. 13 (1980), pp. 211–39. ——, ‘ “The great laboratories of the Universe”: William Herschel on Matter Theory and Planetary Life ’, Journal for the History of Astronomy , vol. 11 (1980), pp. 81–111. ——, ‘ Uranus and the Establishment of Herschel's Astronomy ’, Journal for the History of Astronomy , vol. 12 (1981), pp. 11–26. Frank James See also ...

Ladd, John

Ladd, John (1917–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
789 words

...Committee on Computers of the APA. He was a member of the AAAS Committee for Scientific Freedom and Responsibility from 1989 to 1995 . He helped to found the Program in Biomedical Ethics at Brown, and served as its Director for several years. He was also involved in the establishment of the Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity in America at Brown in 1987 , served for four years as its Acting Director, and continues to participate in its activities. Ladd’s writings have concentrated on moral theory, moral psychology, action theory, and topics in...

Hobbes, Thomas

Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,114 words

...that the first person to make a promise and then turn aside from his own interests to keep it, ‘does but betraye himself his enemy’ (ch. 14). Hobbes remains permanently important, not least because his adoption of a rigorously minimal metaphysics (materialism) and ethics (a kind of egoism), and his impatience with theory that does not confront these underlying truths squarely, make him the permanent model for sceptical and pragmatic philosophies. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/inourtime/inourtime_20051201.shtml An audio discussion of Hobbes’s political...

Douglas, John

Douglas, John (1721–1807)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,590 words

... History were unacknowledged transcriptions from a French history. Meanwhile Douglas had in 1754 published The Criterion , his only theological or philosophical publication except for the lightweight Apology for the Clergy of 1755 , which was a defence of the Anglican establishment against ‘enthusiasts’. So The Criterion must have been the grounds on which he received an Oxford BD and DD in 1758 . Yet its crude account of the historicity of the Gospels in support of an evidentialism more extreme than that of many preceding thinkers, such as Locke or...

Arbuckle, James

Arbuckle, James (d. 1742)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,254 words

...subscription to the Westminster Confession. In late 1724 or early 1725 Arbuckle moved permanently to Dublin, enjoying the hospitality and patronage of the first Viscount Molesworth and his son. Molesworth had given moral support to the Glasgow students' campaign. By the 1730s and until his death, Arbuckle was a clerk in the Irish revenue service. He contributed to and was targeted in the broadside literature of the time, but his main achievement was the establishment of an Addisonian type of essay journalism in Dublin (‘the first Instance of a Design of...

Feigl, Herbert

Feigl, Herbert (1902–88)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,482 words

...own writing and teaching, he published the monographic series Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science , and the journal Philosophical Studies which Feigl established with Wilfred Sellars . The Minnesota Center strongly contributed in the 1950s and 1960s to the establishment of philosophy of science as a subdiscipline of academic philosophy and profession within American intellectual life. Feigl was born on 14 December 1902 in Reichenberg, Austria. His youthful interests in science and philosophy ( Albert Einstein and Moritz Schlick were...

Frondizi, Risieri

Frondizi, Risieri (1910–83)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,568 words

...A value is a synthesis of objective and subjective contributions that emerges and has meaning in concrete human situations. In 1957 Frondizi was elected Dean and later President of the Universidad de Buenos Aires. He made substantial educational reforms, including the establishment of the University Press of Buenos Aires, which by the end of his administration in 1962 had published eight million volumes. He played an important role in establishing the first journals, classes, and organizations dedicated exclusively to philosophical inquiry in many...

Blavatsky, Helena Petrovna

Blavatsky, Helena Petrovna (1831–91)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,541 words

...Countess of Caithness – in books appearing shortly before Isis . But Blavatsky’s emphasis soon shifted away from Spiritualism and Western esotericism, and all her later writings are unambiguous in support of reincarnation, which was denied in her first book. Soon after the establishment of the Theosophical Society, Blavatsky and Olcott were visited by James Peebles, an American Spiritualist traveling lecturer who had recently returned from India and Ceylon. He introduced them to leaders of the Indian reform group the Arya Samaj, and of Sinhalese Buddhism,...

Romanes, George John

Romanes, George John (1848–94)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,277 words

...– in the futile effort to help the ageing naturalist find proof of his theory of heredity, pangenesis. Darwin, in turn, provided Romanes with wider access to other members of the scientific community, such as Huxley, thereby helping him achieve recognition from the scientific establishment. After Darwin's death Romanes continued to defend Darwin's theory of evolution from attacks from all quarters as he felt Darwin would have done. This motivated him to propose his theory of ‘physiological selection’, an idea he advanced to account for evolutionary change not...

Mill, John Stuart

Mill, John Stuart (1806–73)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
4,785 words

...belief is justified only insofar as matter is conceived of as nothing more than ‘a Permanent Possibility of Sensation’ ( Collected Works , vol.9, p.183 ). Mill asserted that associationism can explain why some philosophers conceive of matter as a substratum of our sensations, and why non-philosophers are likely to maintain that this is how they conceive of matter if they are presented with the two conceptions and asked to choose between them (even through the ‘Permanent Possibility’ conception adequately captures the meaning of everyday talk about material...

Chalmers, Thomas

Chalmers, Thomas (1780–1847)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,997 words

...denominations called forth the best efforts from the established church. After the Disruption of 1843 , and the break-up of his established Church of Scotland, he argued that non-established churches could pursue a territorial ministry, similar to that of a parochial establishment, by mapping out territorial districts around each church and concentrating their educational and social programmes on those districts. But at the same time, he never ceased to maintain that an established church, encompassing the large majority of the population, was the most...

Hume, David

Hume, David (1711–76)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,947 words

...as an attack on Christianity, Hume's subject is far more comprehensive. Christians or Christianity are mentioned on three occasions only (in sections 1, 2, 4, 12), and Cleanthes is the first to comment on the ‘Union of Philosophy with the popular Religion, upon the first Establishment of Christianity’. (It is not difficult to infer from this observation that Hume thought it his duty to dis-establish the union.) Demea is the next to mention ‘all the Divines … from the Foundation of Christianity’ who would support his view of the ‘ nature of God ,’ making it...

Pater, Walter Horatio

Pater, Walter Horatio (1839–94)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,041 words

... 1893 . Each edition was carefully revised at a minute textual level. Pater did not inaugurate what became known as the aesthetic movement in Victorian England but The Renaissance did give its scattered beliefs an eloquent and coherent expression that helped in the clearer establishment of its intellectual identity in the culture. Pater's book expressed the ideas that, up to that point, had not been cogently formulated, yet which were implicit beneath a significant number of apparently unconnected artistic manifestations. Aestheticism's doctrine, as it later...

Bosanquet, Bernard

Bosanquet, Bernard (1848–1923)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
4,976 words

...social life requires a consistent coordination of individuals and institutions. Nevertheless, he also acknowledged that there was a movement in human consciousness towards a notion of ‘humanity’ which could give rise to international institutions and law, and he favoured the establishment of a ‘League of nations’. Bosanquet's political thought had a central place in the British idealist tradition; the classical criticism of this movement, Leonard Hobhouse 's The Metaphysical Theory of the State ( 1918 ), is principally a critique of The Philosophical Theory...

Jowett, Benjamin

Jowett, Benjamin (1817–93)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
5,860 words

...chief object of debate in classical literature was the Homeric question – whether the Homeric poems were by one author or redactions of earlier folk lays – and it sparked similar questions about the canonicity and integrity of the Bible. Lower criticism of the classics (the establishment of a critical text, based on the comparative study of manuscripts and textual history) was widely accepted when applied to the Bible, but German higher criticism (the application of historical and literary analysis to the Bible) was deemed heretical in England for questioning...

Locke, impact of

Locke, impact of   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
4,154 words

...implacably opposed to the Catholic James becoming king. From 1667 until Shaftesbury's death in 1683 , Locke had been a member of his household and acted as his secretary, physician and confidant. Although the revolution of 1688 had seen the departure of James and the establishment of William and Mary on the throne in England it was by no means clear that William had consolidated power, which was not guaranteed until the Battle of the Boyne in August 1690 . Locke returned from Holland, where he had been since 1683 , in early 1689 . Once back, he...

McTaggart, John McTaggart Ellis

McTaggart, John McTaggart Ellis (1866–1925)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
4,349 words

...more effective were a passion of his. As an undergraduate he wrote an essay defending the rights of homosexuals. But he was a strong defender of institutions he wanted reformed, including, unsurprisingly, Cambridge and Trinity College and, surprisingly, he defended the establishment of the Church of England. It was sometimes said that this was because he thought Anglicanism took people's minds off religion. In a celebrated speech at the Cambridge Union, however, he argued that a state church makes for freedom of speech because it must be inclusive and...

Sidgwick, Henry

Sidgwick, Henry (1838–1900)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
6,455 words

...lack of attention to a deduction is mysterious. From where does the injunction to maximize come? What is the status of the claim that happiness is the sole value that morality ought to promote? Interpreters have wrestled with the epistemology that underlies Sidgwick's establishment of utilitarianism. On the face of it, he seems committed to a form of foundationalism, which grounds all beliefs in certain basic, non-inferentially justified beliefs. It seems clear that the axioms are there to serve as the basic propositions of morality, from which...

science and philosophy

science and philosophy   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
9,979 words

...of science may be obliged, once again, to accept the humble role of the underlabourer. Bibliography Anstey, Peter , ‘ Robert Boyle and the Heuristic Value of Mechanism ’, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science , vol.33 (2002), pp.161–74. Boas Hall , Marie , ‘ The Establishment of the Mechanical Philosophy ’, Osiris , vol.10, (1952), pp.412–541. Boyer, C. B. , The History of the Calculus and Its Conceptual Development (New York, 1949). Chalmers, Alan , ‘ The Lack of Excellency of Boyle's Mechanical Philosophy ’, Studies in History and Philosophy...

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