You are looking at 1-20 of 28 entries  for:

  • All: peace establishment x
clear all

View:

Overview

peace establishment

The authorized size, composition, and organization of a nation's armed forces in peacetime.

military and militarism

military and militarism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
688 words

... investigated by Stouffer and his colleagues). By far the best overview of this literature, and still probably the best introduction to the field as a whole, is Janowitz's Sociology and the Military Establishment (3rd edn., 1974). A good overview of the field and update is Martin Shaw and Colin Creighton (eds.), The Sociology of War and Peace (1988). See also imperialism...

Islam and Peacebuilding

Islam and Peacebuilding   Reference library

S. Ayse Kadayifci-Orellana

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,665 words

...of his or her gender, is furnished with reason and has the potential to be good and choose to work for the establishment of harmony. Moreover, this principle recognizes the goodness that inheres in each and every human being at birth, regardless of different religious, ethnic, racial, or gender backgrounds. As Tawakkul Karman, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate for 2011 , noted in her acceptance speech, the Qurʾān urges “O you who believe, enter into peace, one and all,” and includes the warning, “Whosoever kills a human being for other than manslaughter or...

Benezet, Anthony

Benezet, Anthony   Reference library

Maurice Jackson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...fight against slavery and the slave trade. Benezet’s descriptions of Africa proved to be so central that William Wilberforce quoted Benezet at length in the great 1792 parliamentary debates on ending the slave trade. In 1775 , Benezet and others called for the establishment of the Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage. This was one of the first abolitionist societies dedicated to ending slavery and the slave trade. In 1784 , a few months before his death, the society was reformed as the Pennsylvania Society for...

Jamestown

Jamestown   Reference library

Marion C. Nelson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Company was soon revoked. Subsequently the English prevailed over the Indians, but Jamestown still failed to thrive. Burned during Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676 , it never fully recovered. Jamestown has always stood for more than its on-the-ground realities would suggest. The establishment in 1619 of a representative legislative assembly inspired Jamestown’s later grand claims to be “cradle of the republic” and “birthplace of a nation.” These “Jamestown before the Mayflower” claims were always aimed straight at New England . Regional passions have mellowed,...

UN Development Fund for Women

UN Development Fund for Women   Reference library

Roja Fazaeli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
627 words

...Iran also made another pledge, of the same amount, toward an International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW), which was to be established in Tehran. However, as a consequence of the fall of the Pahlavi dynasty ( 1925–1979 ) and the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1979 , INSTRAW was ultimately located in the Dominican Republic. The mandate of the Voluntary Fund was extended in 1985 at the end of the UN Decade for Women, at which point it became UNIFEM, an autonomous organization associated with the UN...

International Laws and Treaties on Women's Status

International Laws and Treaties on Women's Status   Reference library

Roja Fazaeli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,844 words

...The declaration, modeled on the U.S. Declaration of Independence ( 1776 ), moved beyond its predecessor in demanding equal rights for women and men. Women's participation in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference is an important point in the history of international women's movements and the development of international law. The conference, which led to the establishment of the League of Nations ( 1920–1946 ), included women in some provisions and decisions. Consequently some aspects of women's rights were enshrined in the Covenant of the League of Nations. For...

Counterculture

Counterculture   Reference library

Christopher Gair

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of Reference, a store providing free clothing and other items, while also offering a free medical center and distributing free acid, housing, and legal services. The Diggers’ form of street theater provided a wider and more lasting legacy for the counterculture through the establishment of inseparable ties between artistic and political practice, a combination that was later imitated most famously by the Yippies. The Yippies were created as an East Coast equivalent to the Diggers, but they adopted a fundamentally different agenda. Whereas the Diggers...

Trade

Trade   Reference library

Elias Tuma

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,171 words

...are determined largely by underdevelopment, poverty, tradition, and the shortage of development capital. Technological advance is neither contradictory to Islam, nor has it been seriously attempted. The OIC has tried to promote trade between its members by encouraging the establishment of Islamic chambers of commerce. Those effects have been limited. This lasting traditional pattern may also result from restrictions on women's role in economic development and business. Islam does not put any restrictions on women's economic and business activities. But,...

Fāṭimid Dynasty

Fāṭimid Dynasty   Reference library

Farhad Daftary, D. S. Richards, and Farhad Daftary

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,511 words

...ʿAbd Allāh. In June 909 Abū ʿAbd Allāh set off at the head of his Kutāma army to Sijilmāsa, to hand the reins of power to the Ismāʿīlī imam. ʿAbd Allāh al-Mahdī entered Qayrawān on 4 January 910 and was immediately proclaimed caliph. The Ismāʿīlī daʿwah finally led to the establishment of a dawlah , or state, headed by the Ismāʿīlī imam. The Shīʿī caliphate of the Fāṭimids commenced in Ifrīqiyah and came to be known as the Fāṭimid dynasty or Fāṭimīyah, named for the Prophet's daughter and ʿAlī's wife, Fāṭimah, to whom al-Mahdī and his successors traced...

Political Activism, Women's

Political Activism, Women's   Reference library

Sarah Fischer and Valentine M. Moghadam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
4,792 words

...Early-twentieth-century nationalist movements tended to equate women's seclusion and illiteracy with national backwardness or stagnation. Progress and national integration were advanced via social and educational reforms, the promotion of a national language, and the establishment of a modern nation-state ( Moaddel, 2005 ) . Muslim women (as well as non-Muslims) responded enthusiastically to the reform agendas of nationalist, constitutionalist, and revolutionary movements in Egypt, Iran, and Turkey, as well as in the Soviet republics ( Jayawardena, ...

Women's Movements

Women's Movements   Reference library

Sherifa Zuhur

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,490 words

...of elite and middle-class women actually formed the basis for the Egyptian state's social services and demonstrated women's managerial expertise. In Palestine, after the dispersal of the Palestinian people in 1948, middle-class women conducted relief efforts until the establishment of UNRWA refugee camps and facilities. In exile and at home, charitable associations formed the major focus for Palestinian women's organized activities until the 1967 war. Women's interest in social services later translated into participation in developmental programs, such...

Egypt

Egypt   Reference library

Lisa Pollard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,734 words

...at home because of her taboo-breaking discussions of women's sexuality. Journalist Safinaz Kazim ( b. 1937 ) joined ranks with al-Ghazali who, after her release from prison in 1971 , once again took up the training of female preachers and continued to call for the establishment of an Islamic state in Egypt. Kazim promoted the idea that women had the right to work, both in and outside the home, suggesting that it is the West, and not Islam, that promotes the idea that the home is women's proper place. The Sadat administration made women's issues...

African Americans

African Americans   Reference library

Joe W. Trotter Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...founded in 1909 . Urbanization and northern migration profoundly affected African American cultural life as well. Black churches, including those of the Baptist, Pentecostal, and African Methodist Episcopal (AME) denominations, ranging from struggling storefronts to large establishments with thousands of members, provided spiritual and social support to urban newcomers. From the black communities of New Orleans , Kansas City, Chicago , and other cities emerged vibrant new adaptations of musical traditions rooted in the past, including ragtime, gospel,...

Nineteenth-Century Westward

Nineteenth-Century Westward  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

... Up to the Louisiana Purchase. With the close of the Revolution, the attention of many Americans—now citizens of a new, independent nation—turned westward, to the rich lands of the Ohio valley and the Garden of Eden known as Kentucky . From the peace treaty that ended the revolution ( 1783 ) to the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 ( 1814 ), this period of westward expansion was dominated by continuing struggles with Indian peoples over the lands between the Appalachians and the Mississippi . The military dimensions of this conflict included...

Mujerista Criticism

Mujerista Criticism   Reference library

Leticia Guardiola-Saenz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,558 words

...Particular biblical and theological presuppositions undergird mujerista criticism. First, the God of the Gospels is understood to have a preferential option for the poor and the marginalized. Second, the main message that Jesus preaches in the Gospels is understood as the establishment of the Kin-dom of God, where the hungry are fed, the homeless receive shelter, and the naked are clothed. This focus on kin-dom rather than king-dom is central to mujerista understanding. While during the first-century Jewish world the metaphor of kingdom was probably the...

Antebellum Reform

Antebellum Reform   Reference library

Julie Holcomb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...render the unruly, uneducated, and dangerous classes trustworthy. Of the “Sisterhood of Reforms,” education brought together the most diverse group of supporters—people who held out hope that human character could be shaped by a rational system of education. Prior to the establishment of public schools, education was a private, voluntary matter. In the early nineteenth century, Sunday schools, for example, were opened in larger cities such as New York and Philadelphia . These privately funded schools were open only on Sundays, when the factories were...

Internet, Blogs, and Social Networking

Internet, Blogs, and Social Networking   Reference library

Anna Piela

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
4,724 words

...RAWA women create discourses that simultaneously challenge both positions. They refuse to take sides in the conflict; rather, they take the side of all women by stating that the United States presence in Afghanistan is an unlawful occupation that can in no way result in the establishment of a democratic state, and the Taliban, allegedly in the name of Islam, have brought oppression, torment, and poverty; and they accuse the national and international nongovernmental organizations of corruption. Through these statements, they criticize the attempts of all these...

Turkish Literature

Turkish Literature   Reference library

Sibel Erol

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,045 words

...university students. Because their ultimate aim is to convert readers, these books are called hidayet (salvation) novels. The earliest and the most famous of these works is Huzur Sokağı ( 1970 , Inner Peace street) by Şule Yüksel Şenler (b. 1938), which established the formula. In this novel, the university student, Westernized Feyza, discovers the peace afforded by traditional values when she falls in love with the Muslim hero Bilal upon her family's move to a house on his street. Şenler, a popular lecturer, started wearing the headscarf in 1965 , tying...

Women and Social Reform

Women and Social Reform   Reference library

Mervat Hatem, Heba Raouf Ezzat, Shahla Haeri, Valentine M. Moghadam, Susan Schaefer Davis, Leila Hessini, Stephanie Willman Bordat, Anita M. Weiss, Sharon Siddique, and Farjana Mahbuba

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
15,123 words

...reformist segment of the clerical establishment. As part of this reformist trend, many women were elected to parliament, and, upon his election, Khātamī expressed his gratitude to women as a constituency by appointing a woman vice president. The new opening encouraged the emergence of a new alliance between feminist and Islamist women that pushed for gender agendas that supported more rights for women within and outside the family. Equally important, in women's publications and within some segments of the clerical establishment, debates began about how the...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

Peter W. Williams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...States : here missions and military presidios both represented—sometimes in tension—the imperial presence. The most comprehensive effort to Christianize the natives did not take place until the latter days of the Spanish presence, when the Franciscan Junípero Serra began the establishment in 1769 of what ultimately became twenty-one mission states between present-day San Francisco and San Diego . Indians who were persuaded to join these communities were obliged to embrace a settled agricultural existence along with the Christian religion. The failure of...

View: