You are looking at 1-20 of 67 entries  for:

  • All: peace establishment x
  • Science and technology x
clear all

View:

Overview

peace establishment

The authorized size, composition, and organization of a nation's armed forces in peacetime.

London, Heinz

London, Heinz   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
312 words

...in Oxford but moved to Bristol in 1936 , remaining there until his brief internment as an enemy alien in 1940 . On his release he worked on the separation of uranium isotopes for the development of the atomic bomb. With the coming of peace, in 1946 London joined the staff of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell where he remained until his death. In Oxford London continued the work of his thesis in his collaboration with his brother on a number of pressing problems in superconductivity. In particular they explained the discoveries of W. ...

Salam, Abdus

Salam, Abdus (1926–1996)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
772 words

...The first step, the ICTP, has been a major forum for the international scientific community and a model for similar establishments in various countries. Since 1965 over 60,000 scientists from 150 countries have taken part in its activities. He expounded his vision of science and technology in the Third World in his book Ideals and Realities ( 1984 ). Salam won the Atoms for Peace Prize ( 1968 ), the Einstein Medal ( 1979 ), and the Peace Medal ( 1981 ) as well as the Nobel Prize; received over forty honorary degrees; and earned a knighthood for his...

standardization

standardization   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,536 words

.... In a narrow sense, standardization refers to the establishment of specifications for the measurement, design, and performance of scientific and technological processes and products, enforced either voluntarily or by some authority. In a broader sense, the term “standardization” may be used to characterize wide-ranging historical movements in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, on par with terms like “nationalism” and “liberalism.” The origins of the modern movements of standardization may be traced to the eighteenth century, when a...

courts and salons

courts and salons   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
943 words

...they worried more about the quality of the performance than the truth-value of the debate. Ultimately, natural philosophers at court, being courtiers, existed at the whim of the prince. Reaction to these disadvantages of the court system was a central impetus in the establishment of scientific academies—institutions often connected to courts but with relative stability and some tools for self-governance. Salons were gatherings in the urban homes of nobles or patricians. Their size, schedule, discussion topics, exclusivity, or internal structure varied...

World War II and Cold War

World War II and Cold War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,192 words

...Bomb (Isis Studies in International Security and Arms Control) (1988). Richard Rhodes , Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb (1995). Paul Forman and Jose-Manuel Sanchez-Ron , eds., National Military Establishments and the Advance of Science (1996). Robert Buderi , The Invention that Changed the World: The Story of Radar from War to Peace (1997). Stephen I. Schwartz , ed., Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons since 1940 (1998). Jeffrey T. Richelson , The Wizards of Langley: The CIA's Directorate of Science and...

political economy of science

political economy of science   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,779 words

...Austria suffered intense privation in the first three years after the war, giving the hundreds of Japanese scientists who had earlier studied there the opportunity to repay their academic benefactors with gifts of cash, research equipment, and laboratory animals. Scientific establishments in the United States, Canada, and Britain acquired material resources on an unprecedented scale. Japanese scientists—accustomed to working under conditions of chronic privation—viewed the war as a “blessing from heaven.” One consequence of the new largesse available to...

Bayt al-Ḥikmah

Bayt al-Ḥikmah   Reference library

Jonathan Lyons

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,493 words

...religious, and social differences from the European forerunner of today’s “modern” science. It also provides a seemingly plausible explanation for the decline of that same tradition by linking it with the historical collapse of the Bayt al-Ḥikmah and of other, similar establishments. Today, the Bayt al-Ḥikmah survives as a powerful symbol, particularly in the Muslim world, of great achievement in science, philosophy, and learning in general, and of the fundamental contributions made by Arab and Muslim scholars to world civilization. Web sites and other...

Ibn Khaldūn, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

Ibn Khaldūn, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (1332–1406)   Reference library

Massimo Campanini

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,776 words

...not completely lost. Ibn Khaldūn devoted a whole book (the sixth) of the Muqaddima to knowledge, for arts, crafts, and sciences are the natural outcome of urban civilization. A direct link connects civilization and knowledge. The strength of a civilization depends on the establishment and the cultivation of sciences as well as of technology and crafts. The very structure of Ibn Khaldūn’s argument reflects this connection: the organization of the sixth book follows the movement of civilization from the nomadic and rural form to the urban and developed. In...

Education

Education   Reference library

Nimat Hafez Barazangi, Donald Malcolm Reid, Dietrich Reetz, Akbar S. Ahmed, Celene Ayat Lizzio, and Shenila S. Khoja-Moolji

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
4,601 words

...…” ( 96:1–5 ). Hence, the imperative to learn and teach has taken on an array of forms, private and public, informal and institutional, religious and otherwise, across Muslim societies past and present. This entry traces major themes and developments in education and the establishment of institutions of knowledge transmission in Muslim societies. Themes and trends covered are those that greatly influenced trajectories of knowledge acquisition and dissemination. We consider the efforts of the early Muslims communities to learn and transmit religious texts as...

physics

physics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,853 words

...the same proportion of their gross domestic product (GDP), and enlisting the same proportion of their populations, in the physics enterprise. An example of their investment, and an indication of the widening of occupational opportunities beyond the universities, was the establishment of national (or, in the case of France, international) bureaus of standards. This enterprise reached a climax in the symbolic year 1900 , when the world's physicists gathered in Paris for their first and last general conclave. They then awakened, as one participant said, to...

Ibn Kamāl

Ibn Kamāl (1469–1534)   Reference library

Yekta Sarac

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
3,162 words

...books to the end of the Mohac War, in 1527 . This book was called Tawarīh-i Āl-i Osman . Although the writing of this book was an official duty assigned by the sultans, he sometimes used a critical approach toward the rulers. In his book, he explained and proved that the establishment of the Ottoman state was not based on coincidence, but on conscious design and arrangement. This book is politically and historically based and is in chronological order. Although the book was supposed to be a work of history for anyone who could read Turkish, it has a...

Ethics

Ethics   Reference library

Ibrahim Kalin and John Kelsay

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
4,491 words

...sin. The struggle to become virtuous has personal dimensions, as one reflects on one’s existence as a creature of God; it has moral and political dimensions, as one struggles to create a just society. Further, the personal and the moral/political interact; in particular, the establishment of a political order governed by Islamic norms is not an end in itself but a way to encourage people to fulfill their potential for virtue through the creation of a social environment that encourages spiritual practice by enforcing the ordinances of Islam. This contribution of...

Guenons, Macaques, and Baboons

Guenons, Macaques, and Baboons   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
13,628 words
Illustration(s):
9

...items and to devise their own preparation methods; other juveniles and adult females have learned from these young entrepreneurs, but adult males do so less readily. This transmission of information is a crucial function of group living: the troop is primarily an educational establishment. Species that live near water use aquatic foods. Japanese macaque troops living by the seashore have recently incorporated seaweeds into their diet. The crab‐eating macaque (an alternative name for the long‐tailed macaque) is so‐called for good reason; hamadryas baboons living...

United Nations

United Nations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...(XXIII)] to convene the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, which itself resulted in the creation of UNEP [by Resolution 2997 (XXVII)]. In 1988 , the General Assembly first recognized the significance of possible global climate change and endorsed the establishment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Resolution 43/905). It convened the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (where the Rio Declaration, Agenda 21, the Convention on Biological Diversity, the FCCC, and a Statement of Forest Principles...

Einstein, Albert

Einstein, Albert (1879–1955)   Reference library

Diana Kormos Buchwald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...predictions of general relativity, Einstein’s name became known beyond the confines of his profession. In spring 1921 Einstein traveled for the first time to the United States. He accompanied a Zionist delegation to New York, Chicago, and Boston, raising funds for the establishment of a Hebrew University in Palestine. He also lectured widely on relativity, including at Princeton University. In the early 1930s, Einstein returned for three consecutive visits to the United States and spent three academic winter terms at the California Institute of...

Inuit

Inuit   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...in 1988 . In 1996 , the ICC received the Environmental Award from the Nordic Council of Ministers. It is not widely known that IRCS had a strong influence on the shape of the Murmansk speech given by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987 and in the subsequent establishment of AEPS. In summary, since its establishment more than three decades ago, the ICC has been very successful at ensuring that Inuit interests have gained the profile, recognition, and response required. The ICC has grown into a major international nongovernment organization, with Consultative Status...

asylums: a historical survey

asylums: a historical survey   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,039 words
Illustration(s):
1

...be insane and that the nation was much moved by his sufferings. During the latter part of his reign the lunacy reform movement got under way. From the beginning of the 19th century parliamentary reports on the condition of lunacy followed one another in steady succession. The establishment of county lunatic asylums was prompted partly by moral outrage felt upon the discovery of the revolting and inhuman conditions of the insane and partly by the newly found faith in the possibility of cure. The committees submitting these reports consisted of well-meaning people...

Military, Science and Technology and The

Military, Science and Technology and The   Reference library

Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...parts—arguably one of the most important economic innovations as well as one demonstrating the military’s central role in American economic development. World War I brought limited relations between researchers and the armed services, but save for the establishment of the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., these relations ended with the armistice. World War II and the long Cold War saw the emergence of a new political economy of knowledge as well as a military and nation-state dependent upon the products of the laboratory for...

grassroots science

grassroots science   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...create a preferred image of society; familiar examples are the environmental, peace, and feminist movements. Social movements typically have a core of activists (professionals, volunteers, or both), a wider group of occasional participants, and a still wider group of passive supporters. Social movements can contain great internal diversity but agree about general goals. Social movements are natural homes to grassroots science, especially when a movement challenges an establishment that has the backing of professional science. The Alternative Health Movement...

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND   Reference library

John Krige

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...administration, pumped millions of dollars into training local officials on the ground in India to familiarize villagers with the benefits of contraception, sometimes forcibly sterilizing men and inserting intrauterine devices (IUDs) into women. An international population establishment flourished under the umbrella of the United Nations, who dispatched highly paid, jet-setting consultants to expensive hotels all over the Third World, where they blithely dispensed advice that was indifferent to the idiosyncrasies of native culture and tradition. In parallel,...

View: