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peace establishment

The authorized size, composition, and organization of a nation's armed forces in peacetime.

War and Peace

War and Peace   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,715 words

...similar to a court or tribunal of peace. Besides Christians and Benthamite utilitarian radicals, many other British thinkers were concerned with questions of war and peace during the nineteenth century. Some were influenced by French and German Enlightenment theorists who wrote on war and peace with rationalist, liberal and internationalist tendencies. T. H. Green , for example, drawing on both Kantian and Hegelian arguments, supported the establishment of democratic states as the only means to achieve world peace and international co-operation (in his ...

Cobden, Richard

Cobden, Richard (1804–65)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,432 words

...deployed the thesis that the people were hoodwinked by the aristocratic war establishment, that wars were legitimized as a result of ‘panics’ created by the press, and that military expenditure was escalated by artificially manufactured ‘war scares’. This was most trenchantly expressed in The Three Panics ( 1862 ), an influential forerunner of later critiques of war-mongering by the press. The depth of public support for war also encouraged Cobden to look to new means to promote peace. In particular, he paid more attention to the need for relations between...

Saltmarsh, John

Saltmarsh, John (d. 1647)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
450 words

...and childhood. He attended Magdalen College, Oxford, where he took his MA, and most likely his BA, although there is no record of either. In 1639 he left Oxford to become rector of Heslerton, Yorkshire. At the outset of his clerical career he supported the ecclesiastical establishment, but he soon became disillusioned with it and was attracted increasingly to the radical religious and political views that were gaining ascendancy in the conflict between king and Parliament. He resigned his rectorship in 1643 , because he could no longer in good conscience...

Murphy, Gardner

Murphy, Gardner (1895–1979)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
934 words

...to live at peace. Along with participation in many other organizations, Murphy was President of the American Psychological Association in 1944 . Murphy started a department of psychology at City College of New York in 1940 . While in New York, he taught courses on personality and conducted experiments on the relation between emotion and perception. He also had great interest in parapsychology (perhaps influenced by his readings of James) and along with that of J. B. Rhine of Duke University, Murphy’s work was responsible for the establishment of several...

Heywood, Samuel

Heywood, Samuel (1753–1828)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,753 words

...a theoretical basis which might challenge the established church – he accepted Paley 's argument for establishment based on expediency – but his view of the state was entirely secular, and he only excluded from complete toleration, that is from the full rights of citizenship, those whose religious tenets conjoined with ‘dangerous political dispositions’. He believed, following Paley, that it was possible to reconcile ‘the progress of truth , with the peace of society; the right of private judgement, with the care of the public safety’ (p. 111). Essentially...

Wells, Herbert George

Wells, Herbert George (1866–1946)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
631 words

... ( 1904 ) he expanded upon his vision of an ideal society first presented in Anticipations . Though he initially supported World War I as a means to unify countries, its desolation convinced Wells that war could only lead to the destruction of humanity. He campaigned for the establishment of the League of Nations and started to invoke his idea of the World State. In the 1920s he was qualifiedly sympathetic to both fascist and communist agendas, though his loathing of both militarism and nationalism along with his Nietzschean emphasis on the power of the...

Axinn, Sidney

Axinn, Sidney (1923–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
659 words

...Japan in Tokyo during 1986–8 . For many years during the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, Axinn was the senior scholar and leader of Temple University's philosophy department. He served as department chair from 1952 to 1967 , and helped to guide the department towards the establishment of its doctoral program. By the 1970s, with the arrival of colleagues Monroe Beardsley , Hugues Leblanc , and Joseph Margolis , Temple's philosophy department consolidated its strengths in the history of philosophy, analytic philosophy, and aesthetics. Axinn's own...

Johnson, Samuel

Johnson, Samuel (1649–1703)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,588 words

...Pamphlet, Intituled, A Letter Ballancing the Necessity of Keeping a Land-Force in Times of Peace; With the Dangers that may Follow on it (1698). Against Lord John Somers. The Second Part of the Confutation of the Ballancing Letter . Containing an Occasional Discourse in Vindication of Magna Charta (1700). Other Relevant Works A Sermon Preach'd before the Lord Mayor and Aldermen (delivered 13 April 1679; publ. 1684). On Matthew 15:14. Reasons for the Establishment of a Standing Army, and the Dissolving the Militia (1685). A wonderfully sarcastic...

Harper, Thomas

Harper, Thomas (1821–93)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
760 words

...to our times, concerning the character (naturalistic vs metaphysical) of Aquinas's hylomorphism. Bibliography The Metaphysics of the School , 3 vols (1879, 1881, 1884). Other Relevant Works The claims of the Anglican Establishment to be the representative of the Primitive Church, tested the Acts and the Council of Ephesus (Liverpool, 1865). Peace through the Truth , 1st series (1866; 2nd series, 1875). Collection of essays. The Spiritual Life (1875). Manchester Dialogues (1877). Three Lectures on Papal Infallibility (Manchester, 1873). Further Reading [...

Dury, John

Dury, John (1596–1680)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,128 words

...theory. He consistently advocated two principal strategies for Protestant reunion. The first was the establishment of a clearly stated body of ‘fundamental’ doctrines on which all Protestants might agree – and then agree to differ about any ‘incidental’ articles not on the list. Many such documents were indeed drawn up by various camps, but none of them received a favourable response outside the group which had devised it. The second was the establishment of a ‘body of Practical Divinity’. This has been called ‘the thesis that Christianity should be regarded...

Wildman, John

Wildman, John (c.1623–93)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,024 words

...from the English Protestants , for their Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Orange (1688). A Letter to a Friend, Advising at this Extraordinary Juncture, how to Free the Nation from Slavery for ever (1689). Some Remarks Upon Government , and Particularly upon the Establishment of the English Monarchy Relating to this Present Juncture (1689). Attributed to Wildman by Mark Goldie. Other Relevant Works A Call to all the Souldiers of the Armie, by the Free People of England (1647). London's Liberties; or A Learned Argument of Law and Reason (1651)....

Dell, William

Dell, William (1607?–69)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,884 words

... Discovery of the Mighty and invincible Power that all Believers receive through the Gift of the Spirit. First held forth in two Sermons, on Act. 1.8. and after published for the instruction and use of those that are Spiritual (1645). The Building, Beauty, Teaching and Establishment of the Truly Christian and Spiritual Church , represented in an Exposition on Isaiah LIV from Verse 11 to 17. Preached to His Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax, and the General Officers of the Army, with Divers other Officers, and Soldiers, and People, at Marston … Oxford, June...

Conway, Moncure Daniel

Conway, Moncure Daniel (1832–1907)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,617 words

...as Horace Greeley and Horace Mann. Inspired by Mann, Conway lobbied the Virginia legislature for compulsory public education. This effort bore no fruit, but the conservatism of the Virginia legislature convinced him that slavery had stultified the thinking of the Virginia establishment, which seemed to cling to the status quo against all reason. Conway’s private pursuit of knowledge drove his intellectual development and, a month after he began to study the law, his life was transformed by an encounter with the writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson . Emerson ’s...

Huxley, Aldous Leonard

Huxley, Aldous Leonard (1894–1963)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,779 words

...the intellectual and artistic climate in England in the mid 1920s. He also wrote several witty and sophisticated essays, establishing himself as a man of letters and a social satirist. In his collection Proper Studies ( 1927 ) he deplored mass culture and promoted the establishment of a ‘true’ aristocracy based solely on talent. Relatedly, he was a proponent of the eugenics movement and believed that people must cultivate individual excellence against modern society's will to conformity. From his beginnings as a copy editor, Huxley expressed fear about...

Mallock, William Hurrell

Mallock, William Hurrell (1849–1923)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,656 words

...became a Roman Catholic, Mallock's writing often revealed a preference for the authority and the historical doctrine of social responsibility which he found among Catholic members of the British aristocracy. To prepare for university, he attended a small private tutorial establishment in Littlehampton, just outside Brighton, where he first became impressed with the subject of poetry, and especially the poetry of Swinburne. Probably influenced by his tutor – the Revd W. B. Philpot , who held liberal theological views – Mallock studied as an undergraduate at...

Cobbett, William

Cobbett, William (1763–1835)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
4,578 words

...his return concluded the Peace of Amiens with France, a France whose perfidious and Jacobinical character Cobbett had spent the 1790s deriding. The Peace represented a repugnant capitulation to the forces of political evil . It was an ‘improvident … disgraceful … heart-chilling … courage killing peace’ and he vented his fury against those who had concluded it in his Letters to the Right Honourable Henry Addington ( 1802 , Collected Writings , vol. 3, p. 254); Letters that strongly parallel Burke's Letters on a Regicide Peace ( 1796–7 ). Burke had...

Catholicism

Catholicism   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,882 words

...Seminary, Southwark ( 1889 ), St Edmund's House, Cambridge ( 1896 ; became a college in 1996 ), Plater College, Oxfordshire ( 1921–2005 ), as well as regional universities. The interest of the secular clergy in philosophy is also evident in their establishment of the Catholic Truth Society ( 1868 ), the peace society PAX ( 1936–71 ), and the journals of philosophy and theology Irish Theological Quarterly ( 1906 –), The Clergy Review ( 1931 –), Philosophical Studies , Maynooth ( 1951 –). Among the secular clergy who have contributed to philosophy in...

Hazlitt, William

Hazlitt, William (1778–1830)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,322 words

...include leading figures of the political left, who well understand Hazlitt's political commitment and consistency, and how he suffered as a result of adhering to principle – for unlike his early friends Coleridge and Wordsworth , he did not trade his principles for establishment honours or government pensions. An important formative influence on Hazlitt as thinker and critic was his dissenting background, even though he was himself an agnostic. Dissent was not just a religious tradition, it was an ideological one. In eighteenth-century England the...

Winstanley, Gerrard

Winstanley, Gerrard (1609)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,761 words

...editions by Sabine , 1941 and Hill, 1983 .) The first five of these were collected and reissued together in December 1649 . Winstanley rejects all traditional religious teaching and the institutions which propagate it; his attitude is emphatically anti-clerical and anti-establishment. Every individual, he holds, is to put his trust entirely in the Spirit of Christ speaking within him. The Resurrection is only a metaphor for the rising up of that Spirit each day in the hearts of those who humbly listen to it. The Bible has no authority except insofar as...

Keynes, John Maynard

Keynes, John Maynard (1883–1946)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,503 words

...Honorary Doctorate of Science, fellowship of the Royal Society and, but for his death, would have received the Order of Merit. Keynes was a man of many worlds, a polymath, walking, seemingly effortlessly, between the bohemian Bloomsbury Group and the Civil Service establishment, between homosexuality and heterosexuality – he praised homosexual sodomy, yet married a Russian ballerina – and between the highest international negotiations and weekend Cambridge college meetings. Founder of the Cambridge Arts Theatre, he transformed the British Arts...

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