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peace establishment

The authorized size, composition, and organization of a nation's armed forces in peacetime.

peace establishment

peace establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... establishment the authorized size, composition, and organization of a nation's armed forces in...

peace establishment

peace establishment  

The authorized size, composition, and organization of a nation's armed forces in peacetime.
Local Government

Local Government   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,193 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the JPs. They were crown appointees named to a panel, the Commission of the Peace, for each county. By 1603 some 71 Commissions were issued, 55 for English and Welsh counties (Wales receiving Commissions only when shired in 1543 ), nine for liberties , and seven for boroughs . A number of towns were exempt from the county Commissions, and were governed by their mayor and aldermen sitting ex officio as justices. Each Commission was supported by a clerk of the peace. Magistrates were in the beginning, and always remained, unsalaried (although they...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,750 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in 1690 the excise establishment had 1 313 employees and by 1779 it had 5 778, but by 1783 this had been reduced to 4 910 ( J. Brewer , The Sinews of Power ( 1989 ), table 4.1). Other than its excise men, central government had no salaried officials in the counties. It therefore relied on its local correspondents to bring matters to its notice. These informers were mostly Justices of the Peace , over whom the centre had little real control. Government could select the individuals to be named to the Commission of the Peace; but it could not ensure...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as ‘a popular though far less useful application of the Institution’. The expenditure of public funds on creating and maintaining collections that were predominantly scientific and ethnographic in nature was not welcomed by connoisseurs and artists whose first desire was the establishment of a National Gallery of Art. The notion of a gallery that could educate artists, impress foreigners, and definitively answer the aspersions cast against the taste of the British public, had been advanced periodically through the century. However, development of a national...

The Poor

The Poor   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,014 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...ended up making financial losses, for it was difficult to oversee the work and few products could be sold. In the second decade of the 18th century the Society for the Propagation (later Promotion) of Christian Knowledge (SPCK), founded in 1698 , began a campaign for the establishment of workhouses in market towns and the larger rural parishes up and down the country under managers who would employ the poor in useful work. In 1723 an Act gave belated recognition to this movement, authorizing the combination of parishes, if necessary, and empowering vestry...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...example of France after 1789 added a powerful element of anxiety to such claims. From the early summer of 1792 , when the first Royal Proclamation Against Seditious Writings was issued and prosecution against Paine's Rights of Man: Part the Second was inaugurated, the establishment suffered recurrent bouts of anxiety about the prospect of a political and social revolution. These anxieties were not groundless, nor should we dismiss the loyalists' campaign as mere rhetoric. Many experienced the spread of popular radical literature as deeply threatening,...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,089 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...; the only provincial guild was that of Nagoya, which was recognized in 1798 . The shogunal government was not enthusiastic about the establishment of trade guilds, but perceived them to be a necessary evil in order to limit the scope for *copyright disputes. Until the late 19 th century, copyright lay with publishers, not with authors, and the most common cause of legal disputes was copyright infringement. The establishment of guilds reduced the number of cases within any one publishing centre, but did not stop disputes between publishers in different...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...were already doing. What made the difference was his authority as a nobleman, as an editor, and as an author, who in 1539 received a cardinal’s hat, in modern parlance ‘for services to literature’. Bembo and his fellow theorists were not, however, concerned with whether the establishment of a single written norm would lead to a unified spoken language. That process would not occur for another four centuries, when other media were introduced. The application of a Tuscan norm based on the literature of the Trecento (i.e. writers of whom the youngest was 30 years...

Justice versus Peace

Justice versus Peace  

The relationship between peace and justice is an important topic of peace thought. The ancient Greek philosopher Plato, in The Republic, imagined the establishment of an ideal system in which ...
China-Japan Peace and Friendship Treaty

China-Japan Peace and Friendship Treaty  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1978)An agreement between China and Japan aimed at closer political and economic cooperation. Post-war Japanese foreign policy was characterized by a tension between dependence on the USA and ...
ara

ara  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(pl. arae).Roman altar. It could be a large, public, commemorative structure, like the sumptuous Ara Pacis (erected by Emperor Augustus to mark the establishment of Imperial power and the coming of ...
Antalcidas

Antalcidas  

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Overview Page
Spartan statesman. He first appears as Sparta's representative at the Graeco‐Persian conference at Sardis in 392 bc. He negotiated a Sparto‐Persian alliance with Artaxerxes 2 II in 388 and, as ...
Pacem in Terris

Pacem in Terris  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
An encyclical letter of Pope John XXIII, dated 11 Apr. 1963, on the achievement of peace through the establishment of justice. It argues that peace can be established in the ...
stipendiary magistrates

stipendiary magistrates  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
Are paid magistrates who are professional lawyers. The normal mode of trial of minor criminal offences is by a bench of lay magistrates, but in the 18th cent. the problem of crime in London, ...
Niwano Nikkyō

Niwano Nikkyō  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1906–99).Co-founder of Risshō Kōseikai, one of the ‘New Religions’ of Japan belonging to the Nichiren family. Niwano was born in 1906 in Niigata Prefecture, in northern Japan. Several years after ...
Belisario Betancur Cuartas

Belisario Betancur Cuartas  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(b. Amagá, Antioquia, Colombia, 4 Feb. 1923)Colombian; President 1982–6 The second son of twenty-two children, sixteen of whom died as children, Betancur was born into an extremely poor family. He ...
Konoe Fumimaro

Konoe Fumimaro  

(b. 12 Oct. 1891, d. 16 Dec. 1945).Prime Minister of Japan 1937–9, 1940–1He entered politics as a member of the House of Peers in 1916. A member of the aristocracy, Konoe gave his support to the ...
emperor worship

emperor worship  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The cult of Roman emperors, living and dead, became the State religion throughout the empire, though it originated as a simple act of thankfulness for the peace and stability brought by Rome. Temples ...
Occupation of Japan

Occupation of Japan  

(1945–52)The Allied occupation of Japan after World War II. After Japan's unconditional surrender on 2 September 1945, it came under the control of the Allied forces of occupation led by General ...

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