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patronage

Subject: Literature

The provision of financial or other material assistance to a writer by a wealthy person or public institution, in return for entertainment, prestige, or homage. Dr Johnson defined a patron ...

patronage

patronage  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

... The granting of offices, employment, contracts, franchises, licenses, and other special favors to allies. Modern patronage is most often associated with the spoils system in politics, in which a victorious party confers offices and other rewards on its supporters. See also political machine...

patronage

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A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...patronage In a political context, patronage refers to the distribution of jobs and positions in return for support. ‘Patronage politics’ is, therefore, often seen as being nepotistic and as undermining the evolution of meritocratic and effective governments and bureaucracies. When used in this way, patronage can be thought of as a subcategory of a broader set of clientelistic strategies. However, while patronage is often associated with neopatrimonialism and the politics of the belly it is important to note that it is often not illegal or strictly...

patronage

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A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
151 words

... English ‘patron’ directly follows Latin patronus in the meaning ‘protector, defender’. In the medieval church it also acquired the meaning of ‘one who has the right to nominate a clergyman to occupy a parish’. These two senses are nicely blended in the concept of political patronage. In Victorian and Edwardian Britain, the civil service office of Patronage Secretary to the Treasury was charged with distributing favours to government supporters in return for votes. The patronage office existed until recently in the British Civil Service; its role is to...

patronage

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The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
438 words

... The basic idea of one high‐status patron authorizing the appointment to some public position of a lower‐status beneficiary is as old and universal as government (of a tribe, court, nation, church) itself. Modern, developed nations may claim that their meritocratic education systems and objective examinations for public appointments have long since wholly expunged old, corrupt traditions of personal patronage appointments. Beyond ‘ civil service ’ structures—notably in political parties and the media—personal patronage based on subjectively assessed...

patronage

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The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... The provision of financial or other material assistance to a writer by a wealthy person or public institution, in return for entertainment, prestige, or homage. Dr Johnson defined a patron as ‘a wretch who supports with insolence, and is paid with flattery’. The system of patronage has had several varieties, from the accommodation of a poet in a royal household to the payment of a single fee for a flattering dedication. Its importance declined sharply in the 18th century with the appearance of a publishing market, but patronage continues in some...

patronage

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Jens Barschdorf

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... beneficia . However, Libanius complained that patronage of villages by soldiers stationed locally could lead to serious abuses ( Oration , 47, 4). Forms of patronage existed everywhere in Late Antiquity. The tribes which entered the Roman Empire adapted the Roman system of patronage. The Persian Empire also knew forms of dependency between different classes. Jens Barschdorf J.-U. Krause , Spätantike Patronatsformen im Westen des Römischen Reiches (Vestigia 38, 1987). A. Wallace-Hadrill , ed., Patronage in Ancient Society (1989). C. F. Cooper and J....

patronage

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The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
829 words

... The awarding of government jobs, appointments, and other considerations on the basis of political ties or favors is known as patronage—that is, a patron or official sponsor arranged it. During the first century of the federal government, almost all nonelected posts went by patronage to elected officials' supporters and fellow party members. After each election, the patronage jobholders from the losing party found themselves out of work. Initially, there were few Presidential appointments, and President George Washington named his revolutionary war...

patronage

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An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... . In relation to art, patronage has two meanings: the first refers to the private encouragement and support of the arts; the second concerns the granting of benefits or offices by a government or court. In both respects, British patronage was in a state of flux during this period, as industrial and political change led to new practices. Art patronage had not been strong in England from the seventeenth century, when court circles encouraged primarily foreign artists and commissioned *portraiture above all other genres of art. Despite attempts by ...

Patronage

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Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
597 words

... In the broad sense, patronage was a protection, often together with a sort of tutelage, exercised by a powerful man over a man of modest condition. The Church had plenty of “patrons”, from protecting saints to generous laymen. But in the technical sense, the right of patronage ( ius patronatus ) was quite another matter. Around the 12th c., it replaced the abusive system of the private church. Under this system, the Church and its Patrimony (including tithes ) were considered by the founder (and his successors) as belonging to him, since he was the...

patronage

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The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
548 words

...another source of contempt for Pope. Samuel Johnson , who had sought, and belatedly received, the patronage of the earl of Chesterfield for his Dictionary , defined a patron as ‘a wretch who supports with insolence, and is paid with flattery’. His letter of defiance to Chesterfield has come to be regarded as the end of patronage, though the process was naturally more complex and drawn out (Johnson himself accepted a state pension of £300 in 1762 ). Patronage passed largely from men of individual wealth to men of professional power or commercial interest,...

patronage

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Michael Dobson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... , in a Renaissance literary context, the social convention by which authors (and acting companies ( see companies, playing ) ) would receive protection, support, or subsidy from wealthy individuals, families, or institutions, in return for furthering their reputations, either simply by associating them with their work or by actively praising them in it (in flattering dedications, if nowhere else). More broadly, ‘patronage’ is a term for the entire pyramid-shaped social structure by which a network of mutual favours and obligations extended from the...

Patronage

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
3,889 words

...troupes, but some feared offending the aristocracy. Patronage after the Civil War Rather than being some serendipitous arrangement to escape legal prosecutions and provide aristocrats with a hobby, patronage actually formed an integral part of the sociopolitical fabric of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. As the patronage system began to change (indeed, some historians blame abuse of patronage for the disastrous reign of Charles I and the ensuing Civil War), other forms of public patronage filled the void. Advertising, which first appeared in...

patronage

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Michael Hurd

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
629 words

...of his retirement as a canon at Reims. Those composers who existed without patronage—the uneducated man with a natural instinct for music, the lapsed cleric unwilling to submit to church authority—were social outcasts who earned a living precariously as wandering minstrels or general entertainers. Though direct church patronage remained a potent force until well into the 18th century, from the 15th century onwards it began to be matched (and was eventually superseded) by the patronage of the nobility. This turned the emphasis away from liturgical music (by...

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The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
453 words

...Johnson , who had sought, and belatedly received, the patronage of the earl of Chesterfield for his Dictionary , defined a patron as ‘a wretch who supports with insolence, and is paid with flattery’. His letter of defiance to Chesterfield has come to be regarded as the end of patronage. Patronage passed largely from men of individual wealth to men of professional power or commercial interest, such as literary editors and library owners and suppliers. Many authors were also clergymen, and patronage was also sometimes exercised through the gift of clerical...

Patronage

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K. Britland

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,842 words

... I. Noble Patronage II. Subscriptions III. Printing and the Market IV. Twentieth- and Twenty-First-Century Patronage The word patronage entered the Eng. lang. around the end of the 13th c. and was used mainly in the context of the Church, denoting assistance offered to a member of the clergy who sought a living or benefice. By the 16th c., patron was applied to a person who supported poets and the arts, yet poetic patronage as a cultural concept comes in many guises and is difficult to quantify. Holzknecht, writing about med. forms of...

patronage

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The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...is a reminder of how strong that supposedly pre-modern system of patronage remains. The reason for this is that it worked so well. The Royal Navy that enabled a small island off the north-west coast of Europe to dominate half the world was built on patronage, with the elements and the enemy quickly weeding out the unsuitable. It should not be supposed that patronage was anti-democratic; on the contrary, so-called Jacksonian democracy in the USA was in fact a vast system of patronage, the saying ‘to the victor the spoils’ in fact being coined in 1860 to...

patronage

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The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
410 words

... . At the beginning of the 20th century, Sir Wilfrid Laurier considered patronage to be ‘the most important function of government’, the one that bulked largest among correspondence and that brought most visitors to his office. A hundred years later, journalist Jeffrey Simpson described Prime Minister Jean Chrétien as the friendly dictator because so much power of appointment and favour was concentrated in his office. The importance of patronage in the development of Canadian political parties and government was clear in the earliest years, when...

Patronage

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
4,924 words

... Personal Patronage under the Early Empire . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1982. Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew ed. Patronage in Ancient Society . London and New York: Routledge, 1989. Greg Woolf Literary Patronage Patronage is an important social institution that played a major role in the workings of the Roman Republic and Empire. The social practice of exchanging goods and services between either peers or the wealthy and their dependents was called by the Romans amicitia (friendship). Some argue that the institution of literary patronage was a...

patronage

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The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
3,929 words

...dictating, the taste of patrons in France and further afield. Such influences, and the decline of court patronage of living artists, stimulated onslaughts by artists and literati against ‘patronage’ itself. Christopher F. Black Careri, G. , ‘The Artist’, in Baroque Personae , ed. R. Villari , trans. L. G. Cochrane (1995). Foss, M. , Man of Wit to Man of Business: The Arts and Changing Patronage 1660–1750 (2nd edn., 1988). Haskell, F. , ‘Patronage’, in Encyclopedia of World Art , vol. 9 (1966). Haskell, F. , Patrons and Painters: A Study in the...

Patronage

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Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,984 words

... . The evolution of cultural patronage in the age of Enlightenment reflects the gradual erosion of the older structures of political and ecclesiastical power and the emergence of new educated elites. While traditional forms of court patronage remained conspicuous in absolutist regimes such as Spain, Russia, and some German states, new methods of what might be called “diluted” patronage emerged in those nations where the urban middle classes evinced strong interest in the possession of works of art and the control of their production—Great Britain and...

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