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participation of the clergy in war

Subject: Religion

Since the Middle Ages clerics in major orders have been expressly forbidden to take a direct part in the shedding of blood. Where, however, the power of the State compels them to undertake ...

war, participation of the clergy in

war, participation of the clergy in   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
72 words

..., participation of the clergy in . Since the Middle Ages clerics in major orders have been expressly forbidden to take a direct part in the shedding of blood. Where, however, the power of the State compels them to undertake military duties, they are permitted to conform. The C of E has commonly upheld the medieval discipline, though ecclesiastical penalties have not been imposed on the few clerics who have entered the...

war, participation of the clergy in

war, participation of the clergy in   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
144 words

...war, participation of the clergy in . Since the Middle Ages clerics in major orders have been expressly forbidden to take a direct part in the shedding of blood. The prohibition was based on the grounds that it was unseemly for the ministers of the altar to shed blood and that the military life was detrimental to the discharge of pastoral duties. This teaching is embodied in the present RC canon law ( CIC ( 1983 ), can. 289). In the modern state, however, clerics are permitted to conform to the force majeure of military law both in peace-time and in war....

participation of the clergy in war

participation of the clergy in war  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Since the Middle Ages clerics in major orders have been expressly forbidden to take a direct part in the shedding of blood. Where, however, the power of the State compels them to undertake military ...
Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Dissenters and the increasingly entrenched *Whig bishops. Moreover, there was strong sentiment, particularly among the country clergy, in favour of a narrow construal of the Church and even in support of the exiled Stuart dynasty. While the enmity between the *Tory and Whig parties, running back to the 1670s, was resolved politically in favour of the Whigs after 1714 , Tory sentiment in the country remained powerful. The official line of Church leaders was that toleration of Dissent was a firmly established part of the constitution, though there was...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...In Canada, moves to shore up the position of the Church of England could be justified as following the entrenched precedents created by the founders of New France in bestowing privileges on the Roman Catholic Church. Thus, under the terms of the 1791 Act, the Crown was authorized to devote a seventh of the lands not yet allocated to European settlers to the maintenance of clergy ‘according to the establishment of the Church of England’. This association between British rule and the advancement of the Church of England gathered pace in the wake of the...

Family and Society

Family and Society   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,021 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of illegitimate children. In the early 17th century, clergy and overseers ofthe poor in many parishes cooperated to prevent the settlement and marriage of incomers whose families might become a burden on the rates. It seems likely that an increasing proportion of the population—perhaps as many as a fifth of those reaching marriageable age in the years immediately before the Civil War—never married at all. (The process of entry into marriage in early modern England is discussed in two very different studies: Richard Adair , Courtship, Illegitimacy and...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,613 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Religion in Industrial Society: Oldham and Saddleworth, 1740–1865 (1994) ). In all of this, nevertheless, a crucial mediator between the cultures of formality and informality often remained the parish priest, whose local social significance is only now being emphasized (see Robert Lee , Rural Society and the Anglican Clergy, 1815–1914: Encountering and Managing the Poor (2006) and The Church of England and the Durham Coalfield 1810–1926 ( 2007 ). The concomitant of this was the survival, well into the 20th century, of the parish itself as the key...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to perish with hunger.’ In August 1839 , just as the Chartists prepared for their most extreme action, three ‘Sacred Days’ of general strike, the battle of the Bible began in earnest. The Chartists staged demonstrations in more than thirty parish churches to display that they had the moral and Christian authority in this time of crisis. They submitted biblical texts for the vicar to preach, the favourite being from James which began ‘Go to now, ye rich men, weep and howl for your miseries that shall come upon you.’ The clergy were in no mood to be told their...

war, Christian attitude to

war, Christian attitude to   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
294 words

...but there were Christians in the army from the 2nd cent. onwards. From the time of Constantine , Christians were less troubled by scruples about participation in war. The Crusades are the classic example of warfare undertaken for supposedly religious ends. Medieval moral theologians came to distinguish between wars in which a Christian could or could not legitimately take part. St Thomas Aquinas lays down three conditions for a ‘just war’: that it must be on the authority of the sovereign; that the cause must be just; and that the belligerents should have...

Clergy

Clergy   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,228 words

...of Port‐Royal . Around the mid‐century seminaries were founded to train priests, and by the end of Louis XIV's reign almost every diocese had one. Congrégations specialized in charitable care, teaching, and missionary work, with the numerous female orders offering opportunities for active participation by daughters of the bourgeoisie and nobility. The result was a better‐trained, active, and missionary clergy able to persuade and pressurize the population to adopt the more interior and hierarchical vision of the Church. With education of the priesthood,...

Khomeini, Ruhollah

Khomeini, Ruhollah   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
831 words

...as he was with efforts to institutionalize clerical rule in Iran. His style of rule generally was to refrain from direct involvement in the day-to-day affairs of government, preferring to serve as arbiter of the differing political perspectives among the clergy. (See also Iran-Iraq War ; Islam ; Religion and Politics .) Hamid Algar , ed. and trans., Islam and Revolution: Writings and Declarations of Imam Khomeini (Berkeley, Calif., 1981). Shaul Bakhash , The Reign of the Ayatollahs: Iran and the Islamic Revolution (New York, 1984). Eric...

Szlachta

Szlachta   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...The Polish term szlachta (nobility) derives from the etymon of the German word Geschlecht (family). The gentry as a social group arose from the knights (Latin nobiles, milites ). In the fourteenth century knights began to receive general privileges from the kings, because they had a privileged status in the state that distinguished them from the clergy, peasants, and burgesses. They consisted of the 7 or 8 percent of the population that owned landed estates. In return for these privileges, they were obliged to give military service at their own...

Sermons and Orations, War and the Military in

Sermons and Orations, War and the Military in   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...of the Revolution and American independence, ministers maintained the power to help influence public opinion. By the turn of the twentieth century, however, the public oration clearly predominated. In 1898 , the New York reformer Theodore Roosevelt appealed to “muscular Christianity” and its values of manly self‐sacrifice to encourage participation in the Spanish‐American War ; in 1917 , President Woodrow Wilson acted as a moralizing evangelist to stir public sentiment in support of American involvement in World War I. The linking of religious...

Denmark

Denmark   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
688 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the nobles and clergy at the expense of royal authority. His son, Waldemar IV ( 1340–75 ), re-established royal power, and his daughter, Margaret I ( 1387–1412 ), succeeded in creating the Pan-Scandinavian Union of Kalmar ( 1397–1523 ). In 1448 the House of Oldenburg became the ruling dynasty. The 16th-century Protestant Reformation brought a national Lutheran church, and Christian IV ( 1588–1648 ) intervened in the Thirty Years War as a champion of Protestantism. A sequence of 17th-century wars with Sweden resulted in Denmark’s eclipse as the...

Anticlericalism

Anticlericalism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,781 words

...is found in Jan Hus and the Hussite Wars, in the Defensor pacis of Marsilius of Padua, and in the Reformatio Sigismundi . It is even more extreme in the work of the anonymous Upper Rhine revolutionary, in Girolamo Savonarola's apocalyptic calls to repent, and in the reform sermons of Johann Geiler von Kaysersberg , who traced the laity's hatred of the parsons back to the greed of the clergy ( De emeis , 1516 , 28 b). In Sebastian Brant's Ship of Fools , in numerous astrological tracts, and in the writings of the humanists ( Desiderius Erasmus of...

Lübeck

Lübeck   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
555 words

...of citizens in the approval of a special tax, which was important for the city council, as well as religious disturbances. On 1 July 1530 a sudden, radical change in the structure of the church was settled. At the same time, a political revolution took place through citizen participation in the council's government of the city. The church order of 31 May 1531 , drafted under the direction of Johannes Bugenhagen , brought the complete reorganization of worship, the clergy, the schools, and the care of the poor. This reorganization was under the...

Byzantine Attitudes toward War

Byzantine Attitudes toward War   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...hardened through the twelfth century as Byzantines confronted increasingly bellicose westerners. Anna Komnene (daughter of Alexios I) sets out the Byzantine case against the crusaders, drawing particular attention to the participation of clergy in war, which was deemed repugnant. For Byzantines, the phrase “monks of war” remained oxymoronic. But indulgences were offered to those who fought or died in righteous battle by the patriarch of Constantinople Michael Autoreianos (r. 1208–1214 ), although this reflected the Western influences that prevailed during his...

Catholicism

Catholicism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,050 words

...clergy and sisters who were sent to Key West and Tampa were confronted for decades with a very low level of Cuban participation in parish life, although the schools (taught in English) did have an impact on some of the youth. After 1914 , Cuban immigration to the United States was quite low, until a gradual increase in the 1950s briefly made New York the largest U.S. Cuban community. But the extensive neocolonial connections that developed after the United States helped Cuba achieve independence from Spain in 1898 brought about a continual stream of travelers...

La Rochelle

La Rochelle   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,484 words

...of taxation allowed Rochelais merchants to dominate the regional wine and salt trade and strengthened its independence. The city also had some independence from ecclesiastical authority. Subject to the bishop of Saintes, who resided thirty miles away, the Rochelais were free from the powerful control often exercised by resident prelates. After 1401 Rochelais clergy were barred from active participation in municipal government. By the early fifteenth century the city supervised clerical management of municipal almshouses. Traditionally the beginning of the...

Laurier, Wilfrid

Laurier, Wilfrid (1841–1919)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
695 words

...to the provincial assembly in 1871 . He resigned in 1874 to stand for election to the House of Commons, where he remained for 45 years. On 26 June 1877 , in Quebec City, Laurier delivered a memorable speech on political liberalism that was intended to calm the Catholic clergy and improve his party's position. His argument for English-style moderate liberalism was so effective that the following October he was named minister of inland revenue in Alexander Mackenzie 's government. In 1885 the hanging of Louis Riel gave him the opportunity to defend the...

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