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parasocial interaction

(PSI, para-social interaction) A term coined by Horton and Wohl in 1956 to refer to a kind of psychological relationship experienced by members of an audience in their mediated ...

parasocial interaction

parasocial interaction   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
265 words

... interaction ( para-social interaction , PSI ) A term coined by Horton and Wohl in 1956 to refer to a kind of psychological relationship experienced by members of an audience in their mediated encounters with certain performers in the mass media , particularly on television . Regular viewers come to feel that they know familiar television personalities almost as friends. Parasocial relationships psychologically resemble those of face-to-face interaction but they are of course mediated and one-sided. On the rare occasions when we encounter...

parasocial interaction

parasocial interaction  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
(PSI, para-social interaction)A term coined by Horton and Wohl in 1956 to refer to a kind of psychological relationship experienced by members of an audience in their mediated encounters with certain ...
emotional realism

emotional realism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
A representational quality in a narrative that is felt to be ‘true-to-life’ by audiences in terms of the enactment of recognizable subjective experiences. The cultural theorist Ien Ang (b.1954) ...
presence

presence  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
See also absent presence; mediation; parasocial interaction; presence studies; psychological distance; social presence; suspension of disbelief; telepresence; virtual presence.1. Being in a ...
medium theory

medium theory  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
A mode of analysis focusing on the nature and significance of the specific characteristics of a particular medium of communication (see affordances; modality) and on technical, social, and ...
television reception

television reception  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. A signal in the form of radio waves received via an aerial (or via cable or broadband) or microwave signals received via a satellite dish, which are subsequently decoded into moving pictures and ...
television viewing styles

television viewing styles  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
Modes of interaction by individuals with television in particular viewing contexts, including the viewer's relative focus on TV compared to simultaneous activities, degree of attention to the screen, ...
absent presence

absent presence  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. In poststructuralist theory, a concept most closely associated with Derrida, for whom it refers to the mythical status of the supposed hub of any system of ideas (see also deconstruction; ...
television

television  

1. An electronic technology enabling the encoding and decoding of ‘moving images’ and synchronized sounds, together with their unidirectional, instantaneous, long-distance transmission and reception ...
interaction

interaction   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
179 words

...communication ; ritual interaction ; symbolic interactionism ; compare parasocial interaction . 3. Sometimes a synonym for communication . ...

emotional realism

emotional realism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
163 words

...of recognizable subjective experiences. Ien Ang suggests that for some viewers , watching a soap opera involves this kind of psychological realism , perhaps in part because long-running serials give viewers a chance to develop a form of parasocial relationship with the characters ( see parasocial interaction ), of whom we are often offered close-up shots focusing on their facial expressions . For Ang, emotional realism depends on connotation more than denotation . Even if at the level of content the treatment is unrealistic, what is...

presence

presence   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
162 words

...with relatively experienced users of the medium. See also parasocial interaction ; presence studies ; suspension of disbelief ; telepresence ; virtual presence . ...

television reception

television reception   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
124 words

...signal. 3. The ways in which television is used and the interpretation of TV content by viewers in particular contexts : see also active audience theory ; channel surfing ; glance ; heavy viewers ; high and low involvement ; lean forward or lean back ; parasocial interaction ; reception model ; reception studies ; relational uses ; social uses ; structural uses ; television flow ; television viewing styles ; timeshifting ; uses and gratifications ; zapping ; zipping . ...

television viewing styles

television viewing styles   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
180 words

...for men to exercise more control over what they watch suggests the basis of such performances of gender in power rather than sex ( see also performativity ). See also channel surfing ; dual screening ; glance ; lean forward or lean back ; multitasking ; parasocial interaction ; television flow ; television viewing patterns ; timeshifting ; zapping ; zipping . ...

medium theory

medium theory   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
187 words

...) and on technical, social, and psychological differences between media ( see also bias ; cuelessness ; immediacy ; neutrality ; parasocial interaction ; presence ; psychological distance ; social presence ). Comparisons range from specific media (such as radio vs television ) and types of media (such as print media vs electronic media ), to, most broadly, mediated communication vs face-to-face interaction . Despite McLuhan’s insistence that ‘the medium is the message ’ ( see McLuhanism ), a focus on the medium need not be at the...

direct address

direct address   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
148 words

...newscasters, weather forecasters, and chat-show hosts. It is only occasionally used in narratives , where such communication is extradiegetic ( see diegesis ); in such contexts this is typically a humorous device or an alienation effect . See also interpellation ; parasocial interaction ; piece-to-camera . ...

text–reader relations

text–reader relations   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
182 words

...sets of expectations for producer–audience relationships. Informational texts foregrounding content offer less scope for interpretation than aesthetic texts foregrounding form . See also active audience theory ; mode of address ; open and closed texts ; parasocial interaction ; point of view ; readerly ; writerly ; compare communicative relationships . ...

absent presence

absent presence   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
294 words

...interaction ( see also phonocentrism ). This is in fact a feature of all mediated communication where the participants are spatially and/or temporally separated. 3. The notion of the use of (present) sign vehicles to refer to (absent) referents , which is a design feature of language ( see also displacement ), and of all representation . 4. The mass-mediated presence of onscreen personalities and events which can generate the illusion of almost immediate presence or even (particularly with television ) parasocial interaction . 5....

affiliation

affiliation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
300 words

...1. ( liking , interpersonal attraction ) (social psychology) In both social and parasocial interaction , the primary factor in the evaluation of one person by another ( see person perception ). Often expressed in terms of the opposition of liking–disliking (or friendliness–hostility), this dimension is one of the most commonly identified interpersonal attitudes communicated by nonverbal behaviour . Affiliative behaviour can be observed in: kinesics and oculesics , where positive reactions can be detected in cues such as more ...

television (TV

television (TV   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
587 words

... reception , relatively low viewer involvement, and the greater attentional role of sound. The domesticity of the medium influences the preferred mode of address. See direct address ; domestic communication technologies ; glance ; high and low involvement ; parasocial interaction ; television flow ; television viewing styles . 3. ( television broadcasts ) The live or recorded audiovisual broadcasts produced for, and transmitted by, this medium ( see commercials ; non-programme material ; programme ; television genres ). The first regular ...

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