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paradox of voting

The observation that the level of voter turnout is inconsistent with rational decision-making on whether or not to vote. The act of voting involves a benefit and a cost to the voter. A ...

paradox of voting

paradox of voting n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... of voting n . Another name for Condorcet's paradox...

paradox of voting

paradox of voting   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
117 words

... of voting A circular voting outcome that precludes a majority winner. In the simplest example with three candidates, A is preferred to B, B is preferred to C, and C is preferred to A. Each candidate thus has a claim to be a majority winner, but no candidate can defeat all the others. The paradox of voting occurs when preferences are not single peaked , that is, when there is no way to rank A, B, and C along a single dimension for each voter. Where preferences are single peaked, a single choice that can defeat all others is guaranteed. The paradox of...

paradox of voting

paradox of voting   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
142 words

...paradox of voting The observation that the level of voter turnout is inconsistent with rational decision-making on whether or not to vote. The act of voting involves a benefit and a cost to the voter. A benefit is derived if the voter changes the outcome of the election to the one that is desired (in such a case, the voter is said to be pivotal). When there are many voters, the probability of this happening is very low so the expected benefit is small. The costs of voting include the use of time and direct travel costs. Calculations show that the cost is...

paradox of voting

paradox of voting   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
230 words

...idea of treating political actors like economic ones, and analysing their actions with economists’ tools. Thus the rational voter would vote for his or her favourite party if and only if the value to that voter of a government led by the party he or she favoured, multiplied by the probability that his or hers was the vote that brought this about, exceeded the cost of voting. However, the probability of being decisive in this sense is infinitesimally small in a normal election: so why does anybody vote? This has alternatively been labelled the ‘paradox of...

paradox of voting

paradox of voting  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The observation that the level of voter turnout is inconsistent with rational decision-making on whether or not to vote. The act of voting involves a benefit and a cost to the voter. A benefit is ...
Labour History

Labour History   Quick reference

John L. Halstead

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,401 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in Rules of the Game: Sir Oswald and Lady Cynthia Mosley, 1896–1933 ( 1982 ; new edn with Beyond the Pale , 1998 ) how an essay in family history can make a valuable contribution to labour history. Mosley's experience (his full biography is Robert Skidelsky , Oswald Mosley ( 1975 , 1990 ) was central to that of Labour government. A party of the working class gains its support, as Labour did throughout the 1920s, by raising aspirations and hope that something can be done about the major problems of people's lives. It is the cruel paradox of achieving...

Towns

Towns   Quick reference

David M. Palliser

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,140 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the First Reform Act of 1832 made sweeping changes to those boroughs represented in Parliament, coupled with a widening of the qualifications for voting. The dangers of resisting reform had been made clear in 1831 , when the Lords’ rejection of the Second Reform Bill had led to riots in several towns, including the burning of Nottingham Castle and the wrecking of Bristol's Mansion House. The reformed Parliament then went on to pass the Municipal Reform Act of 1835 , dissolving the corporations of nearly 200 English boroughs and replacing them by councils...

voting paradox

voting paradox  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Suppose that three people, Alice, Brian, and Cait, are choosing between three candidates, Primus, Secunda, and Tertius, for a job. Alice prefers Primus to Secunda to Tertius. Brian prefers Secunda ...
collective choice

collective choice  

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The process of aggregating individual preferences into social preferences in order to make a social (or collective) choice from a set of alternatives. The most frequently encountered collective ...
Condorcet paradox

Condorcet paradox  

A paradox of intransitive preferences arising from the aggregation of individual transitive preferences under majority rule. Its simplest manifestation is in a group of three voters choosing among ...
majority voting

majority voting  

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Overview Page
A voting method which selects as the winner the option with the majority of votes. When a choice is made from just two options May's theorem states that majority voting is the only decision rule to ...
cyclic majority

cyclic majority  

An intransitive preference order arising from majority voting in a group of individuals with transitive individual preferences. See Condorcet's paradox.
social-choice theory

social-choice theory  

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The theory of ways to conjure a social welfare function, or rational choice for a collective as a whole out of the preferences or ‘utilities’ of its individual members. The theory is bedevilled by ...
Arrow's theorem

Arrow's theorem  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Sometimes (inappropriately) called Arrow's paradox. The most famous theorem in the logic of social choice or voting, proved by Stanford economist and 1972 Nobel prizewinner Kenneth Arrow, in his ...
voting

voting  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
N.1 (in a registered company) The process of casting a vote on a motion proposed at a company meeting. Initially the vote is taken upon a show of hands, i.e. each company member present in person has ...
Arrow's impossibility theorem

Arrow's impossibility theorem  

The theorem provides a proof that no perfect process exists for aggregating individual rankings of alternatives into a collective (or social) ranking. An example of an aggregation process is majority ...
minimax

minimax  

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Overview Page
A basic algorithm in artificial intelligence, in particular when constructing programs to play games such as chess. A tree of possible moves, alternating with possible opponent' moves, is constructed ...
public choice

public choice  

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Overview Page
1 Broadly, any study of politics using the methods and characteristic assumptions of economics. The methods are deductive and rely heavily on differential calculus because they depend on the marginal ...
Marquis de Condorcet

Marquis de Condorcet  

(1743–94)French mathematician and social theorist. Condorcet was educated by Jesuits, and became the permanent Secretary of the Académie des Sciences, for which he was qualified by his mathematical ...
social welfare function

social welfare function  

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Overview Page
1 The level of welfare in an economy or society expressed as a function of economic variables. This is the Bergson–Samuelson sense. Social welfare can be expressed as a function W(X1,…,Xn) of the ...

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