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Overview

paradigm

Essentially, a large-scale and generalized model that provides a viewpoint from which the real world may be investigated. It differs from most other models, which are abstractions based on ...

paradigm

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... The prevailing pattern of thought in a discipline or part of a discipline. Perhaps the most powerful Western paradigm has been the ‘scientific method’. T. Kuhn (1972) argued that the evolution of a new paradigm marks a new stage in thinking. This paradigm persists until too many anomalies occur, when it is replaced by a new paradigm that is able to explain the anomalies. In geography, for example, the regional geography paradigm was superseded by the quantitative revolution , and then the cultural turn . R. Inkpen (2005), pp. 18–21 is strongly...

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A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
343 words

...certain paradigms. The most successful paradigms (e.g. Newton’s celestial mechanics, Darwin’s evolutionary theory) define a stable period in science where a tradition of knowledge is established and developed. Systemic anomalies may eventually challenge the validity of a paradigm. If the challenge is sustained and overwhelming, a period of instability follows until a new paradigm successfully supplants the older one (a ‘paradigm shift’). Three successive dominant paradigms in the media effects tradition were: the ‘powerful effects paradigm’ from the...

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A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... A model or example of the environment and methodology in which systems and software are developed and operated. For one operational paradigm there could be several alternative development paradigms. Examples are functional programming, logic programming, semantic data modelling, algebraic computing, numerical computing, object-oriented design, prototyping, and natural language...

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A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... A worldview, shared set of assumptions, or widely accepted idea of how the world works, which forms the basis for hypotheses and...

paradigm

paradigm ([Ge])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
92 words

... [Ge] A term used and popularized by Thomas Kuhn to refer to a common set of philosophies and methods shared by a scientific community within which basic assumptions and orientations are left uncriticized. When competing approaches successfully challenge and replace an existing position there is said to be a ‘paradigm shift’, as for example between Newtonian and Einsteinian physics. A number of successive paradigms can be seen in archaeology—for example, functionalism , processualism , and post‐processualism —although there is considerable debate...

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A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
128 words

... (pronounced “paradime”) a term with a variety of meanings in the scientific literature. In its weakest sense, it is used as a synonym for model, hypothesis, or theory. It is used most commonly to refer to a known example or incident that serves as a model or provides a pattern for a more general phenomenon. In a still more restricted sense, paradigm may refer to a ruling model that has replaced all others. Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection is an example of such a paradigm. As time passes, the matching of new discoveries with the model may...

paradigm

paradigm   Reference library

Richard L. Gregory

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
322 words

... . ‘Paradigm’ has become an important technical term in the philosophy of science following the publication of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas Kuhn ( 1962 ). Kuhn's thesis is that ‘normal science’ operates within a largely unquestioned framework governed by fundamental theoretical models, or ‘paradigms’. These ruling paradigms determine the way in which experiments are designed and observational results are interpreted. Once a theory gains the status of a paradigm (an example is Darwin's principle of natural selection by the survival...

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The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

... Any generalized example or representative instance of a concept or a theoretical approach that provides a means by which the real world can be...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
129 words

... The forms of a given noun, verb, etc. arranged systematically according to their grammatical features. In the illustration, those of the Latin word for ‘table’ ( mensa ) are arranged in two dimensions, one defined by features of case (nominative, vocative, etc.) and the other by number (singular, plural). In the teaching tradition, paradigms such as that of mensa are learned as models (the original meaning of the Greek word from which ‘paradigm’ comes) from which a pupil can deduce the corresponding forms of other words belonging to the same ...

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A Dictionary of Marketing (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
31 words

... A word derived from the Greek word παράδειγμα ‎ (paradeigma) meaning pattern: a widely accepted view, or generally accepted perspective, regarding any subject, business, political, social, linguistic model, pattern, or...

Paradigm

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
29 words

... . The title given by form critics to passages in the Gospels which contain narratives woven round a saying of Christ in order to drive its teaching...

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A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...paradigm A way of thinking or conceptualizing a body of knowledge and ideas that encompass a field of scholarly activity. A paradigm determines whether innovative ideas or new discoveries are coherent with what is already known and understood. If the new knowledge can be confirmed by irrefutable observations and/or experiments and is at odds with what has previously been believed to be true in a field of science, the field undergoes a paradigm shift, as described and discussed by the American historian and philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn ( 1922–96 ) in...

paradigm

paradigm (Morphology)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
219 words

... (Pronounced /'pærədaı⚪m/.) Morphology . An arrangement of the inflectional forms of a lexeme , according to one or more grammatical features (e.g. case , person , number , tense ). For example, see , sees , seeing , saw , seen constitute a verbal paradigm for the lexeme see . Paradigms can be conceptualized as a series of ‘slots’ for the various forms of a lexeme: 2001 G.T. STUMP The paradigm of a lexeme L is a set of cells ; each such cell is the pairing <Y, σ> of an inflected form Y of the lexeme L with a complete set σ of...

Paradigm

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A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Paradigm A broad intellectual framework or set of assumptions used to analyze a scientific issue or a field of scientific inquiry. Loosely, a pattern of thought or conceptualization—an overall way of regarding phenomena within which scientists normally work. In the particular sense used by Thomas Kuhn, paradigms are governing concepts of cause in a given science during a given period. Paradigms reflect causal concepts operative in current or so-called normal science. In Kuhn’s influential view (one not accepted by all philosophers of science), such...

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A Dictionary of Plant Sciences (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
37 words

... Essentially, a large-scale and generalized model that provides a viewpoint from which the real world may be investigated. It differs from most other models, which are abstractions based on data derived from the real...

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A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... Essentially, a large-scale and generalized model that provides a viewpoint from which the real world may be investigated. It differs from most other models, which are abstractions based on data derived from the real...

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A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Essentially, a large-scale and generalized model that provides a viewpoint from which the real world may be investigated. It differs from most other models, which are abstractions based on data derived from the real...

paradigm

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A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
162 words

... In the philosophy of science the notion is associated with Kuhn ’s influential book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions ( 1962 ). Kuhn suggests that certain scientific works, such as Newton ’s Principia or John Dalton ’s New System of Chemical Philosophy ( 1808 ), provide an open-ended resource: a framework of concepts, results, and procedures within which subsequent work is structured. Normal science proceeds within such a framework or paradigm. A paradigm does not impose a rigid or mechanical approach, but can be taken more or less...

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A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
77 words

... Term formerly used in * Form Criticism for the story of an event or saying of Jesus used in the oral period, before the tradition had been assembled in the gospels (e.g. Mark 12: 13–17), but the word is sometimes used now in biblical studies for the methods and assumptions of particular approaches. Thus the shift from a literal to a critical approach, or from historical to literary criticism, will be described as a ‘paradigm...

paradigm

paradigm n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n . 1. A pattern, stereotypical example, model, or general conceptual framework within which theories in a particular area of research are constructed. See also paradigm shift . 2. (Originally) the set of inflected forms of a word, or a table displaying these forms, such as the conjugation of the regular French verb meaning to speak: je parle , tu parles , il parle , nous parlons , vous parlez , ils parlent . paradigmatic or paradigmatical adj . [From Greek para beside or beyond + deiknynai to...

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