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p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

neo-positivism

neo-positivism  

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A movement in early 20th-century American sociology which blended together the three themes of quantification, behaviourism, and positivist epistemology. Its principal proponents were Franklin H. ...
sport participation

sport participation  

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A measure, or at least indication, of the proportion of a population or a group engaging in a particular activity, usually on the basis of a stated frequency of participation in that activity. In ...
backward-sloping supply curve for labour

backward-sloping supply curve for labour  

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The preference for increased leisure over increased remuneration. Thus, when wage incentives are offered to improve productivity, labourers respond by working shorter hours to earn the same money ...
celebrity

celebrity  

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A phenomenon in which exceptional attributes—such as glamour, sustained fame, beauty, talent—are recognized and associated with an individual, whose cultural profile is then often reproduced not ...
mobility, social

mobility, social  

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The movement—usually of individuals but sometimes of whole groups—between different positions within the system of social stratification in any society. It is conventional to distinguish upward and ...
mental illness

mental illness  

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A disputed concept (see, for example, the entries elsewhere in this dictionary on Laing and anti-psychiatry) founded on the everyday contrast between mind and body which, when applied to illness, ...
backward-sloping supply curve for labour

backward-sloping supply curve for labour   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
176 words

...It is found when wage incentives are offered to improve productivity and labourers respond by working shorter hours to earn the same money rather than working harder or longer to earn more money. Max Weber discussed this phenomenon in General Economic History ( 1919–20 ), seeing it as an example of economic traditionalism that runs counter to modern capitalist rationality. Sociological research has produced a variety of alternative explanations for the persistence of this traditionalism in modern societies. It may be a consequence of perceived...

pillarization

pillarization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
172 words

...This term is a translation of the Dutch word Verzuiling , first used by the political scientist J. P. Kruyt to describe the peculiar nature of the social structure and political institutions in the Netherlands, although it has since been applied elsewhere (for example with reference to Belgium). For much of the 20th century, Dutch society was divided by cross-cutting class-based and religious cleavages into four dominant interest groups or blocs—Catholics, Protestants, Socialists, and Liberals—around which formed ‘virtually all politically and...

de-skilling

de-skilling   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
252 words

...A term that summarizes the central ideas of Harry Braverman's Labour and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the 20th Century (1974). His thesis was that capitalist forms of production reduce the cost of labour by breaking down complex work processes into smaller, simpler, and unskilled tasks. This continuous fragmentation process replaces the skilled craft worker by unskilled labour requiring little training, so that jobs in the secondary sector of the labour market are substituted for jobs in the primary sector. In consequence,...

Marxism

Marxism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
878 words

...The body of theory and diverse political practices and policies associated with (or justified by reference to) the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels . For a substantial part of the 20th century, and until the closing years of the millennium, Marxism was the alleged organizing principle of societies which contained more than one-third of the earth's population. Its influence on culture, history, sociology, politics, economics, and philosophy is explained and documented in David McLellan (ed.), Marx: The First Hundred Years (1983). However,...

labelling

labelling   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,296 words

...(given its radical roots), it may have become something of a new orthodoxy. See also criminology, critical ; deviance amplification ; folk devil ; moral panic ; symbolic interactionism . http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-1224(197406)39%3A3%3C444%3ATLTOMI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0 A classic paper by Thomas Scheff: ‘The Labelling Theory of Mental Illness’....

family, sociology of

family, sociology of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,130 words

...as divorce). Family transitions also have economic consequences. For example, research in the United States has revealed how women and children face a high risk of poverty following divorce. The proportion of single-parent families rose dramatically during the second half of the 20th century. Social research can play an important role in revealing how society can aid single-parent families to adjust and survive—and not just in financial terms. Many children will at some stage live in a single-parent household and it is damaging to view such families as...

mobility, social

mobility, social   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,543 words

...industrialized West and, to a lesser extent, the former communist states of Eastern Europe. The study of social mobility has a long sociological pedigree, extending back to the mid-19th-century writings of Karl Marx and John Stuart Mill , with major contributions in the early 20th century from Vilfredo Pareto (who proposed a theory of the ‘circulation of elites’) and Pitirim Sorokin . The now vast literature on the subject is inextricably entangled with wider discussions of (among other things) education, gender, culture, power, statistical techniques,...

Jesus

Jesus   Reference library

Kathleen E. Corley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
7,786 words

...( 1984 , pp. 20–31; Durber, 1992 , p. 69). There are in fact only five parables now arguably considered authentic that utilize images of women: the Leaven ( Matt 13:3 / Luke 13:20–21 / Gos. Thom . 96), the Lost Coin ( Luke 15:8–9 ), the Empty Jar ( Gos. Thom. 97), the Unjust Judge ( Luke 18:2–8 ), and the Prodigal Son ( Luke 15:11–32 ). And of these only four focus on actions of women, since in the last case women are mentioned only briefly as the prostitutes ( pornai ) upon whom the Prodigal Son squanders his money ( Luke 15:20 ). Indeed, the...

Microfinance

Microfinance   Reference library

Clinton Bennett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,184 words

...1999, p. 107).Yunus and others defend microfinance against the criticism that it violates Islamic principles, pointing out that Grameen's aims of equity and social justice are profoundly Islamic. Providing people with work rather than giving hand-outs, too, builds on classical Muslim ideals. Interest is charged (20 percent), which for some contravenes Islamic principles (the prohibition of ribā ). However, this is not exploitative (no collateral is required) and, because the borrowers own the bank, they pay interest “to themselves” (Yunus 1991, p. 110)....

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism   Reference library

Gwynn Kessler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,535 words

...sealed, and to a certain extent the boundaries are permeable” ( 2002 , p. 10). Although there is a degree of variation in the lists by Namaste and Meyerowitz, and indeed others, Valentine points out that the minimal definition includes transsexuals and, usually, (male) transvestites ( 2007 , p. 39). He also writes that the flexibility of the term “transgender” “enables one group—frequently transsexuals—to stand in for others while giving the impression of collectivity” ( 2007 , p. 40). Despite these remarks, which posit a close connection, at times to the...

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women   Reference library

Roja Fazaeli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,218 words

...reservations than any other major human rights treaty” (U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1996/20, 11 June 1996). Many of the reservations to CEDAW are based on conflict with religious laws, which is especially true in the case of the Muslim-majority countries discussed below. While some of these reservations are narrow in scope, others are wide-ranging and have the potential to limit the obligations undertaken by the reserving states significantly (U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1996/20, 11 June 1996). The first part of Saudi Arabia's reservation, for example, states: “In...

Creation

Creation   Reference library

Erin E. Fleming

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,923 words

...of how things came to be ( Frymer-Kensky, 2006 , p. 5; Meyers, 2012 , p. 67). Indeed, when the story begins, God (here called Yahweh ’Elohim) has already created heaven and earth. The first action of the story is the creation of a human being, hā’ādām in Hebrew, from the dust of the earth and the breath of the deity ( Gen 2:7 ). Though the characters in this tale are often referred to as Adam and Eve, they are not actually given these proper names until the end of the story for Eve ( Gen 3:20 ) and even later for Adam ( Gen 4:25 ). With the term ...

Queer Readings

Queer Readings   Reference library

Stuart Macwilliam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,346 words

...(p. 169). Koch rejects the usual critiques employed to deflect attacks upon those who are not heterosexual. He argues they grant “to the Bible the power to authenticate or authorize human beings,” and he writes, “I name the locus of my authority as intrinsic” (p. 174). The result is an exegesis that has an air of parody, a defiant playfulness. He describes his strategy in gay terms as “Cruising the Scriptures,” using “our own ways of knowing, our own desire for connection, our own savvy and instinct, our own response to what attracts us and repels us” (p....

Same-Sex Relations

Same-Sex Relations   Reference library

David Tabb Stewart, Thomas K. Hubbard, Anthony Corbeill, Lynn R. Huber, David Brodsky, and Valerie Abrahamsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,413 words

...; 19:25–27 ; 20:1–10 ; 21:20–24 ), has received attention in the interpretive tradition. Although not necessarily imagined as a sexual relationship, the relationship between the beloved disciple, assumed to be John, and Jesus was understood in terms of John’s virginal devotion to his master, teacher, and friend in medieval Christian tradition. Robert E. Goss explains, “For nearly two millennia, men attracted to the same sex have intuited a homoerotic relationship between Jesus and the Beloved Disciple” (“John,” in Guest et al., 2006 , p. 560). Although...

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