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p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

Levi Strauss Strike

Levi Strauss Strike   Reference library

D. Emily Hicks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
602 words

...of Control.” L’autre 1 (1990): n.p. http://www.nadir.org/nadir/archiv/netzkritik/societyofcontrol.html , accessed 11 July 2011. Frith, Maxine . “The Ethical Revolution Sweeping through the World’s Sweatshops.” Independent/UK , 16 April 2005. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/0416-01.htm , accessed 11 July 2011. Louie, Miriam Chin Yoon . Sweatshop Warriors: Immigrant Women Workers Take On the Global Factory . Boston: South End Press, 2001. Martinez, Elizabeth . “In Pursuit of Latina Liberation.” Signs 20, no. 4 (1995): 1019–1028. Zugman, Kara...

Vega, Bernardo

Vega, Bernardo (1885–1965)   Reference library

Lorrin Thomas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,261 words

...import to the Puerto Rican community ( Vega, 1984 , p. 148). Several years later, in 1934 , it was with his characteristic flair for combining political commentary with artistic vision that Vega presided over a mock trial to condemn the actions of a variety of civic leaders (First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt not least among them) whose disparaging comments about Puerto Ricans’ susceptibility to tuberculosis had led to the barring of Puerto Rican children from city-funded summer camps that year (Pérez, pp. 19–20). During the late 1930s, fallout from US colonial...

Terrorism and Migration

Terrorism and Migration   Reference library

Gilberto Rosas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
701 words

...by then-vice-president George Herbert Walker Bush, that profiled “terrorists” in the following manner: “Fully 60 percent of the Third World’s population is under 20 years of age; half are 15 years or less. These population pressures create a volatile mixture of youthful aspirations that when coupled with economic and political frustrations help form a large pool of potential terrorists.” (p. 5). Finally, perhaps no greater example of state terror and migration comes into focus than with the hundreds of brutalized, dismembered, decaying corpses of young...

Militarization of the Border in the Late twentieth Century

Militarization of the Border in the Late twentieth Century   Reference library

Timothy Dunn and José Palafox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
4,110 words

...Border Patrol, 2013. http://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/documents/U.S.%20Border%20Patrol%20Fiscal%20Year%20Staffing%20Statistics%201992-2013.pdf . US Border Patrol . Border Patrol Strategic Plan: 1994 and Beyond, National Strategy . Washington, D.C.: US Border Patrol, 1994. US Border Patrol . Sector Profile—Fiscal Year 2012 . Washington, D.C.: US Border Patrol, 2012. http://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/documents/U.S.%20Border%20Patrol%20Fiscal%20Year%202012%20Sector%20Profile.pdf . US Border Patrol . Sector Profile—Fiscal Year 2013 . Washington...

Hernández, Antonia

Hernández, Antonia (1948)   Reference library

Marc-Tizoc González

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
652 words

...http://laprensa-sandiego.org/archieve/december05-03/maldef.htm . Rockwell, Paul , “Affirmative Action Triumphs: The Untold Stories.” In Motion Magazine , 20 December 1995. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/rocktr.html . Stewart, Jocelyn Y. , “The Advocate: As the President of the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Antonia Hernandez Speaks for Millions,” LA Times , 12 September 1999, p. 14. Marc-Tizoc...

Puerto Rican Revolutionary Organizations

Puerto Rican Revolutionary Organizations   Reference library

Pedro Cabán

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,330 words

...defines terrorism as “the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population or any segment thereof, in furtherance of social or political objectives” ( Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2005 , “Terrorism,” p. 20). This is precisely the charge that independentistas levy against the United States. The late Antonio Corretjer, one of Puerto Rico’s most influential literary figures and independence advocates, said of the Macheteros, “They call them terrorists. But terrorists want to terrify...

White Citizens’ Councils

White Citizens’ Councils   Reference library

Charles W. Eagles

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
539 words

...after the U.S. Supreme Court’s May 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education . Inspired by Thomas P. Brady ’s “Black Monday” speech, Robert B. Patterson , a plantation manager in Leflore County, rallied more than a dozen white men in nearby Indianola to organize resistance to racial integration. A subsequent, larger public meeting resulted in the formation of the Indianola Citizens’ Council. Other local councils soon emerged, and in October 20 groups publicly formed the Association of Citizens’ Councils in Mississippi with Patterson as executive...

Birth Defects

Birth Defects   Reference library

Adela de la Torre and Terence Valenzuela

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,109 words

...13.40 10.10 13.30 10.70 11.80 11.70 13.10 Low-birth- weight rate 2 6.25 7.80 5.75 6.50 9.40 9.60 6.50 6.20 5.95 6.50 7.55 8.40 Infant mortality rate 3 6.28 5.33 6.03 5.12 8.88 7.18 5.29 5.77 5.52 4.47 Birth rate 4 12.50 10.90 25.80 18.10 19.00 14.60 10.80 9.00 24.20 24.00 Infant mortality rate caused by: Congenital Malformation 5 151.50 119.20 177.10 147.10 142.50 100.80 150.90 117.10 Short gestation and LBW 6 65.50 73.60 64.30 73.50 108.20 165.00 84.20 80.10 Number of Births (in 100s) 23,826 21,624 4,696 5,983 548 663 124 168 949 1,426 478 1,209 1 Preterm...

Obscenity and Pornography

Obscenity and Pornography   Reference library

Donald A. Downs

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,594 words

...without redeeming so-cial importance” (p. 484). Brennan confined obscenity to “material which deals with sex in a manner appealing to prurient interest.” He defined prurient interest as either “[h]aving a tendency to excite lustful thoughts” or as a “shameful and morbid interest in sex” (p. 487). He then promulgated the following test for obscenity: “whether to the average person, ap-plying contemporary community standards, the dominant theme of the material taken as a whole appeals to the prurient interest” (p. 489). Roth ’s test focused on prurience. Yet...

Latinismo(s) and Latinidad

Latinismo(s) and Latinidad   Reference library

Silvio Torres-Saillant

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
5,274 words

...as what Alejandro Portes and Ruben Rumbaut call a “reactive ethnicity,” resulting from an adverse native mainstream and developing defensive identities to counter it ( 2002 , p. 284). Reactive ethnicity may also be understood as a differentiated instance of what other scholars in the human sciences, such as McCall, have more inclusively called “reactive identity.”( McCall, 2003 , p. 20; Vetik, Nimmerfelt, and Tara ( 2006 , pp. 1084–1085). Hispanics have thus come to develop a sense of themselves as a somewhat unified population, as a result of a history of...

West, The

West, The   Reference library

Deena J. González

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,132 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Billings Gazette , O’Connor Center for the Rocky Mountain West, University of Montana, accessed 14 June 2014, http://www.crmw.org/news%20articles/LS_Msln._9-19-13.htm . The Perryman Group , An Essential Resource: An Analysis of the Economic Impact of Undocumented Workers on Business Activity in the US with Estimated Effects by State and by Industry . Waco, Tex.: Perryman Group, 2008, p. 69. Tuman, John P. , David F. Damore , and Maria José Flor Ágreda . “Immigration and the Contours of Nevada’s Latino Population,” Brookings Mountain West, June...

Cuban Democracy Act (1992)

Cuban Democracy Act (1992)   Reference library

Berta Esperanza Hernández-Truyol

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,689 words

...Implications.” Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 20 (1996): 137–147. Carayiannis, Peter P. “The Cuban Democracy Act: Success or Failure?” Journal of International Law and Practice 3 (1994): 195–204. Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 , Pub. L. 102-484, 22 U.S.C. 6001 et seq . Exec. Order No. 12,854, 58 Fed. Reg. 36,587 (July 7, 1993) (President Clinton, Implementation of the Cuban Democracy Act). Erikson, Daniel P. “The New Cuba Divide.” The National Interest 67 (Spring 2002): 65–71. Herd, Julia P. “The Cuban Democracy Act: Another Extraterritorial...

National Association of Hispanic Journalists

National Association of Hispanic Journalists   Reference library

Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,414 words

...project for three years. “It was a taste of what management was going to be like,” Malavé said in a booklet published by NAHJ in honor of its twentieth anniversary. “A lot of people I know today were contacts I made then” ( National Association of Hispanic Journalists 20 Years: A Retrospective , p. 42). The NAHJ is governed by an eighteen-member board of directors that consists of executive officers and regional directors who represent geographic areas of the United States and the Caribbean. See also Identity, Politics of ; Media, Politics of ; and Print...

Homeland Security, Department of

Homeland Security, Department of   Reference library

Patrick S. Roberts

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,042 words

...Law Review 59 (2006): 673–760. Kettl, Donald F. System under Stress: Homeland Security and American Politics . Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2004. Moynihan, Donald P. “ Homeland Security and the U.S. Public Management Policy Agenda. ” Governance 18 (2005): 171–196. Roberts, Patrick S. “ FEMA and the Prospects for Reputation-Based Autonomy. ” Studies in American Political Development 20 (Spring 2006): 57–87. Patrick S....

Immigration and Naturalization Service

Immigration and Naturalization Service   Reference library

Ronald L. Mize

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,655 words

...U.S. Border Patrol . Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. Immigration Policy Center . “A Humanitarian Crisis at the Border: New Estimates of Deaths Among Unauthorized Immigrants, 2007.” http://www.americanimmigrationcouncil.org/sites/default/files/docs/Crisis%20at%20the%20Border.pdf , accessed 7 January 2012. Ronald L....

Higher Education

Higher Education   Reference library

Frances Contreras

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,517 words

...Education . Latino representation in higher education remains limited because of the uneven results that persist throughout the P-20 educational continuum. Inadequate access to resources in schools, low levels of academic achievement, teacher quality, and the demands to enter the workforce are factors that influence the transition to college and completion rates for Latino/as. While the 2010 Census shows that the Latina and Latino population in the United States has increased more than 50 percent from 2000 to 2010 , access to higher education has not...

Undocumented Youth Labor

Undocumented Youth Labor   Reference library

Isabel Martínez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,243 words

...conditions. For nonagricultural sectors, youths between the ages fourteen and fifteen may not work during school hours, and no more than three hours during a school day and eight hours on nonschool days. They are also not allowed to work before 7 a.m. or after 7 p.m. during the school year, and after 9 p.m. during summers. Additionally, youths are eligible for minimum wages employment, or labor that pays no less than $7.25 an hour. Those under the age of eighteen are prohibited by law to engage in work considered hazardous by federal laws, including meat...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz and Phillip Granberry

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,525 words

...poverty rates for other types of families (mainly married-couple families). The number of Latina and Latino families affected by this issue varies by group and by location. Overall, close to 26 percent of all Latina and Latino families were cataloged as female-headed compared to 20 percent among the overall population. Structural economic change. But demographics do not fully explain the greater incidence of poverty among Latinas and Latinos in some parts of the country. In cities such as New York and Chicago, there are also some major structural economic...

Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development   Reference library

Lisa Meierotto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,219 words

...20 September 2004. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2004-146/ . Peña, Devon G. “Cultural Landscapes and Biodiversity: The Ethnoecology of an Upper Rio Grande Watershed Commons.” In Ethnoecology: Situated Knowledge/Located Lives , edited by Virginia D. Nazarea , pp. 107–132. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1999. Peña, Devon G. “The Browning of the American Farm.” Colorado Central Magazine 77, no. 2 (2000). United States Department of Labor . The National Agricultural Workers Survey . Washington, D.C.: US Department of Labor, n.d. Accessed 20...

ASPIRA

ASPIRA   Reference library

Gail A. Cueto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,592 words

...only a small number of children. The dropout rate of Latino and Latina students was extremely high, and there was no indication that the board of education was willing to address the problem. The leadership of ASPIRA made the decision to seek remedy through the courts, and on 20 September 1972 , it filed suit against the Board of Education of the City of New York. Three years later a landmark agreement resulting from the suit, the ASPIRA Consent Decree, was signed by both parties and approved by the court. It provided mandatory bilingual instruction for...

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