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p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

Dolley Madison

Dolley Madison  

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First Lady• Born: May 20, 1768, Guilford County, N.C.• Wife of James Madison, 4th President• Died: July 12, 1849, Washington, D.C.• Born: May 20, 1768, Guilford County, N.C.[...]
dependency

dependency  

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A dependent territory is a territory that does not possess full political sovereignty (e.g. Ashmore and Cartier Islands is an external territory of Australia; and the Pitcairn Islands, a British ...
World Trade Organization

World Trade Organization  

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(WTO)An international organization with 136 member countries that was set up in 1994 to replace the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, in order to regulate international trade.
filibuster

filibuster  

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Attempt to obstruct parliamentary proceedings by prolonging debate. Common in the US Senate, where the right of free discussion is protected. A minority of senators may attempt to delay and obstruct ...
Emerging Powers

Emerging Powers   Reference library

Amitav Acharya

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,304 words

...effectiveness and legitimacy of the G-20 and the whole new architecture of global order, however. The legitimacy of the G-20 comes from its success in arresting the financial crisis and the fact that G-20 represents 80 percent of the world's population and 90 percent of the world's finance. It is credited with masterminding the largest coordinated macroeconomic stimulus in history, which helped to arrest a catastrophic global recession. But as Mahani Zainal Abidin ( 2010 , p. 8), a Malaysian economist, argues, the G-20 has not effectively addressed...

Multilateralism

Multilateralism   Reference library

Nicola P. Contessi

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,663 words

...public sphere” states enjoy equivalent representation in public discussions and deliberations ( Mitzen, 2005 , pp. 402, 411). In this light, they can have three important political effects. Legitimation. Multilateralism is largely about how things are done ( Pouliot, 2011b , p. 20). For this reason, when it comes to decision-making, especially on enforcement, multilateral—as opposed to unilateral, or even minilateral—decisions and their outcomes are legitimate. This fact can elucidate the puzzle emerging from the multiplication of multilateralism even in...

Postcolonial Approaches to the Study of African Politics

Postcolonial Approaches to the Study of African Politics   Reference library

Grace Adeniyi Ogunyankin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,979 words

... 1999 , p. 115). On the continent, Kwame Nkrumah was the biggest proponent of Pan-Africanism, particularly after independence. Prior to the independence of many African countries, the focus of Pan-Africanism was on eliminating colonial rule. Nkrumah promoted African unity as a means to dismantle the entrenched (neo)colonial economic exploitation ( Edozie, 2018 , p. 783). The logic behind this unity is the notion that a united front on the part of Africa would be strong enough to counter economic dependency ( Edozie, 2018 , p. 783). Despite these 20...

Sovereignty

Sovereignty   Reference library

Jack Donnelly

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,661 words

... Krasner claims that any external “influence” on domestic political institutions violates sovereignty ( 1999 , pp. 20, 33, 121, 226; 1995, 116, 127). Using the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in lobbying one's own government, according to Krasner, infringes sovereignty ( 1999 , p. 32). For example, the influence of the Catholic Church on beliefs about abortion and birth control is, for Krasner, a “transgression” of sovereignty ( 1995 , p. 116). Following Krasner, most foreign policy, to the extent it is successful, violates sovereignty, because it influences...

State Formation and Conflict in Africa

State Formation and Conflict in Africa   Reference library

Didier Péclard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,480 words

...Frerks, G. , & Terpstra, N. (2017). Introduction: Armed groups and multi-layered governance . Civil Wars , 19 (3), 257–278. Kingston, P. , & Spears, I. (2004). States within states: Incipient political entities in the post–Cold War era . London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Le Billon, P. (2001). The political ecology of war: Natural resources and armed conflicts . Political Geography , 20 (5), 561–584. Le Billon, P. (2005). The geopolitics of resource wars: Resource dependence, governance and violence . New York, NY: Frank Cass. Leander, A. (2004)....

Land Grabs: The Politics of the Land Rush Across Africa

Land Grabs: The Politics of the Land Rush Across Africa   Reference library

Pauline Peters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
14,263 words

...E. (2015). Straddling contract and estate farming: Accumulation strategies of Senegalese horticultural exporters. Journal of Agrarian Change , 15 (1), 17–42. Baglioni, E. , & Gibbon, P. (2013). Land grabbing, large- and small-scale farming: What can evidence and policy from 20th century Africa contribute to the debate? Third World Quarterly , 34 (9), 1558–1581. Baxter, P. , & Hogg, R. (1990). Property, poverty, and people: Changing rights in property and problems of pastoral development . Manchester, UK: University of Manchester, Department of Social...

Trust and Social Relations in African Politics

Trust and Social Relations in African Politics   Reference library

Dominic Burbidge

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,431 words
Illustration(s):
3

...(or changing group characteristics to a similar degree) […] the estimates suggest that this would increase expected incomes by 20%–50%, which is an impressively large effect” ( Pritchett, 1999 , p. 274). Their path-breaking survey further suggests that social capital in rural Tanzania is “truly social ” (p. 273) because “there is an independent effect at the village level” not observed in individual households ( Pritchett, 1999 , p. 272). 3 This is a beginning step in asking how much trust works against poverty , though the external validity of the causal...

Land-Related Conflict and Electoral Politics in Africa

Land-Related Conflict and Electoral Politics in Africa   Reference library

Catherine Boone

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,318 words

...tensions politiques au Nord-Kivu 1939–1994: Une trajectoire conflictuelle. In P. Mathieu & J. C. Willame (Eds.), Conflits et guerres au Kivu et dans la région des grands lacs (pp. 13–20). Paris, France, and Tervuren, Belgium: L’Harmattan et Institut Africain/CEDAF. Mathieu, P. , & Willame, J. C. (Eds.). (1999). Conflits et guerres au Kivu et dans la région des grands lacs . Paris, France, and Tervuren, Belgium: L’Harmattan et Institut Africain/CEDAF. Médard, C. (1996). Les conflits “ethniques” au Kenya: Une question de votes ou de terres? Afrique...

Women, Equality, and Citizenship in Contemporary Africa

Women, Equality, and Citizenship in Contemporary Africa   Reference library

Robtel Neajai Pailey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
12,128 words

...( Isin & Turner, 2007 , p. 16); a form of political activity, identity, and solidarity ( Bosniak, 2000 , p. 451); an identification of group and individual engagement ( Barry, 2006 , pp. 20–21); and simultaneously as identity, practice, and a set of relations ( Pailey, 2016a ). While the literature on citizenship tends to overly emphasize its inclusionary force, citizenship is essentially about exclusion in that it creates gendered, racialized, classed, ethnicized, and aged “non- or partial citizens” ( Lister, 2003 , p. 43). In this vein, the term...

Electoral Violence and Political Competition in Africa

Electoral Violence and Political Competition in Africa   Reference library

Liisa Laakso

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
6,727 words

...& Muchlinski, 2018a , p. 17). These are not easily grasped by cross-country statistical analysis. Variations and case specificity also concern the impact of violence. Johanna Söderström has studied how violence affects the voters’ political knowledge. Her starting point is the role of emotion in politics: fear intensifies the individual’s ability to amass information and re-evaluate his or her own behavior and attitudes ( Söderström, 2018 , p. 869). Söderström uses the Afrobarometer survey round four ( 2008–2009 ), covering 20 sub-Saharan countries, which...

Sovereignty as a Resource and Curse in Africa

Sovereignty as a Resource and Curse in Africa   Reference library

Pierre Englebert

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
5,886 words

...In L. de Vries , P. Englebert , & M. Schomerus (Eds.), Secessionism in African politics: Aspiration, grievance, performance, disenchantment (pp. 423–454). Palgrave Series in African Borderlands. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. Schomerus, M. , Englebert, P. , & de Vries, L. (2018). Africa’s secessionism: A breakdance of aspiration, grievance, performance and disenchantment. In L. de Vries , P. Englebert , & M. Schomerus (Eds.), Secessionism in African politics: Aspiration, grievance, performance, disenchantment (pp. 1–20). Palgrave Series in...

China’s Economic Impact on Africa

China’s Economic Impact on Africa   Reference library

David H. Shinn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,649 words

...non-existent at the end of the 20th century , and then in about 2005 , it began to grow significantly. In recent years, flows of ODI to Africa have been running at about $3 billion annually according to China’s official statistics. As of 2015 , Chinese ODI stock in Africa was invested by dollar value in the following sectors: mining and oil 28%, construction 27%, manufacturing 13%, financial services 10%, scientific research and technology services 4%, and other sectors 18% ( Eom, Hwang, Atkins, Chen, & Zhou, 2017 , p. 3). A study by McKinsey & Company...

Federalism and Regional Politics in Africa

Federalism and Regional Politics in Africa   Reference library

Asnake Kefale

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
5,888 words

...2001 , p. 4). The major ethnic groups include the Hausa-Fulani in the northwest, the Yoruba in the southwest, and the Igbo in the southeast ( Falola, 2001 , p. 5). Since its independence in 1960 , Nigeria has followed a federal system of government. The federal system was originally a postcolonial arrangement left by the departing British authorities. Unlike other federations engineered by the colonial powers, the Nigerian federal system not only became resilient but also greatly contributed to the preservation of the country’s unity ( Suberu, 2010 , p. 222)....

Boko Haram and the Global War on Terror

Boko Haram and the Global War on Terror   Reference library

Abimbola O. Adesoji

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,203 words

...Violence , 29 (4), 610–634. Williams, P. A. T. (1997). Religion, violence and displacement in Nigeria. Journal of Asian and African Studies , 32 , 33–49. Notes 1. Other militia groups that operated in the North East were the “Sara-Suka” in Bauchi and “Yan-Kalere” in Gombe states, among others (see Bintube, 2015 ). 2. Another source said that nearly 20 of the sect members were killed (see Salkida, 2012 ). 3. Other sources reported that as many as 900 people were killed in Maiduguri alone (see Loimeier, 2012 , p. 151). Abimbola O. Adesoji 1. Other...

Revisiting the African Renaissance

Revisiting the African Renaissance   Reference library

Sabelo J. Ndlovu-Gatsheni

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,295 words

...Books. Seme, P. I. (1906). The regeneration of Africa by Pixley ka Isaka Seme . South African History online. Slater, D. (2004). Geopolitics and the post-colonial: Rethinking North–South relations . Malden, MA: Blackwell. Tandon, Y. (2015). Trade is war: The West’s war against the world . New York, NY: OR Books. Taylor, I. (2003). The United Nations Conference in Trade and Development. New Political Economy , 8 (3), 409–418. Therien, J. P. (1999). Beyond the North–South divide: Two tales of world poverty. Third World Quarterly , 20 (4), 723–742....

Interviews as a Means to Understand (and Silence) Contemporary Africa and Its Voices

Interviews as a Means to Understand (and Silence) Contemporary Africa and Its Voices   Reference library

Patrycja Stys

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,737 words

...encounter. Such omissions limit our understanding of the research process and impede methodological transparency, obscuring possible biases in data and conclusions drawn from it. The same neglect precludes earnest deliberations of “academic colonialism” ( Huizer, 1979 , p. 20) and the “hidden colonialism” ( Sanjek, 1993 ) of interviewing and other methods. This article begins with an overview of common approaches to interviewing, used widely across the world. The next section addresses the complex process of conducting interviews, particularly in...

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