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p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

Malaria

Malaria   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005
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Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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...time is known, for example, from the fossil record. P. falciparum manifests few silent-site polymorphisms, even among globally sampled populations. This is true for several nuclear-encoded genes ( Escalante et al., 1998 ; Rich et al., 1998 , 2000 ) as well as for mitochondrial genomes ( Conway et al., 2000 ). Based on these observations, the current distribution of P. falciparum throughout the world's tropical regions is believed to have derived from a small ancestral population within the past 20,000 to 60,000 years. Evidence exists to show that...

Convergent and Parallel Evolution

Convergent and Parallel Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005
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Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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1,982 words
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...of HIV-1 in Response to Drug Treatment in Patients Infected with HIV. Codon (nucleotides) Patient 10 (28–30) 54 (160–162) 71 (211–213) 82 (244–246) 90 (268–270) P4-0 CTC ATC GCT GTC TTG P4-75 ATC GTC GTT GCC ATG P5-0 CTT ATC GCT GTC TTG P5-59 ATT GTC GTT GCC ATG P6-0 CTC ATC GCT GTC TTG P6-71 ATC GTC GTT GCC ATG P7-0 CTC ATC GTT GTC TTG P7-60 ATC No change No change GCC ATG P8-0 ATC ATC GCT GTC TTG P8-72 GTC GTC No change GCC ATG Experimental Convergent Evolution One of the most exciting areas of research in convergent evolution comes from the field of...

Cancer

Cancer   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...Cancer. ” Nature 393.6682 (1998): 229–234. Struewing, J. P. , P. Hartge , S. Wacholder , S. M. Baker , M. Berlin , M. McAdams , M. M. Timmerman , L. C. Brody , and M. A. Tucker . “ The Risk of Cancer Associated with Specific Mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 among Ashkenazi Jews. ” New England Journal of Medicine 336.20 (1997): 1401–1408. Weber, B. L. “ Update on Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes. ” Recent Results in Cancer Research 152 (1998): 49–59. Weinberg, R. A. “ The Retinoblastoma Protein and Cell Cycle Control. ” Cell 81 (1995):...

Phylogenetic Inference

Phylogenetic Inference   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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10,174 words
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4

...Therefore, the probability of witnessing the set of P ;ys( t )'s and P ;yc( t )'s is given by their product. We repeat this for the other two characters. Then, their product gives the probability of witnessing the events for all three characters. This product overbranches and characters we designate the likelihood, L: L = P s (t 1 )P c (t 2 )P s (t 3 )P s (t 4 )P s (t 5 )P s (t 6 ) * P s (t 1 )P s (t 2 )P s (t 3 )P c (t 4 )P s (t 5 )P s (t 6 ) * P s (t 1 )P s (t 2 )P s (t 3 )P s (t 4 )P s (t 5 )P c (t 6 ) The numbers associated with each length t ...

Maternal-Fetal Conflict

Maternal-Fetal Conflict   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005

...S. K. , A. A. Wylie , and R. L. Jirtle . “ Imprinting of PEG3, the Human Homologue of a Mouse Gene Involved in Nurturing Behavior. ” Genomics 71 (2001): 110–117. O'Neill, M. J. , R. S. Ingram , P. B. Vrana , and S. M. Tilghman . “ Allelic Expression of Igf2 in Marsupials and Birds. ” Development Genes and Evolution 210 (2000): 18–20. Robillard, P.-Y. , G. A. Deckker , and T. C. Hulsey . “ Revisiting the Epidemiological Standard of Preeclampsia: Primigravidity or Primipaternity. ” European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive...

Vaccination

Vaccination   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005
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Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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2,814 words
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...( R p ), defined as the number of secondary cases caused by one infectious individual introduced into a population where a fraction p have been vaccinated and everyone else is susceptible. For vaccines that protect completely, R p = (1 − p ) R 0 (2) The eradication criterion for an infectious agent is derived by setting R p = 1. Thus, for a perfect vaccine, infection is eradicated when p , the fraction vaccinated, exceeds the critical vaccination proportion, p c , where p c = 1 − 1 / R 0     (3) Table 1 lists some numerical values for p c ....

Mammals

Mammals   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005
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Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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5,871 words
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...J. , and P. Arctander . “Molecular Evidence for the Phylogenetic Affinities of the Ruminantia.” In Antelopes, Deer and Relatives , edited by E. S. Vrba and G. B. Schaller , pp. 143–155. New Haven, 2000. Gatesy, J. , et al. “ Stability of Cladistic Relationships between Cetacea and Higher Level Artiodactyl Taxa. ” Systematic Biology 48 (1999): 6–20. Gingerich, P. D. , et al. “ Origin of Whales in Epicontinental Remnant Seas. ” Science 220 (1983): 403–406. Griffiths, M. The Biology of the Monotremes . New York, 1978. Hotton, N. , P. D. MacLean , ...

Character Displacement

Character Displacement   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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...Canines: Community Wide Character Displacement among the Small Cats of Israel. ” American Naturalist 136 (1990): 39–60. Fenchel, T. “ Character Displacement and Co-existence in Mud Snails (Hydrobiidae). ” Oecologia 20 (1975): 19–32. Grant, P. R. “ The Classic Case of Character Displacement. ” Evolutionary Biology 8 (1975): 237. Grant, P. R. Ecology and Evolution of Darwin's Finches . Princeton, 1986. Grudemo, J. , and K. Johannesson . “ Size of Mudsnails, Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant) and H. ventrosa (Montagu), in Allopatry and Sympatry: Conclusions from...

Nomenclature

Nomenclature   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005
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Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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3,807 words
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...Greuter, W. , F. R. Barrie , H. M. Burdet , W. G. Chaloner , V. Demoulin , D. L. Hawksworth , P. M. Jorgensen , D. H. Nicolson , P. C. Silva , P. Trehane , and J. McNeill , eds. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Tokyo Code). Regnum Vegetabile 131, Koeltz Scientific Books, Konigstein, Germany, 1994. Greuter, W. , D. L. Hawksworth , J. McNeill , M. A. Mayo , A. Minelli , P. H. A. Sneath , B. J. Tindall , P. Trehane , and P. Tubbs , eds. “ Draft BioCode: The Prospective International Rules for the Scientific Names of...

Quantitative Genetics

Quantitative Genetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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4,115 words
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4

...mean of the population. We can divide the breeder's equation by the phenotypic standard deviation √ V P to give response in standard deviations R /√ V P = h 2 S /√ V P . The quantity i = S /√ V P is called the intensity of selection; it gives the number of standard deviation units by which the trait is altered by selection within a generation. Estimates of heritability are typically between 30 and 40 percent for morphological traits and are 10 to 20 percent for traits closely connected to fitness, such as survival or fecundity. Intensities of...

Experimental Evolution

Experimental Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005
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3,999 words
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...Long-term Experimental Evolution in Escherichia coli: 9. Characterization of Insertion Sequence-mediated Mutations and Rearrangements. ” Genetics 156 (2000): 477–488. Descriptions of some of the mutations that have been substituted in the evolving E. coli lines. Sniegowski, P. D. , P. J. Gerrish , and R. E. Lenski . “ Evolution of High Mutation Rates in Experimental Populations of Escherichia coli. ” Nature 387 (1997): 703–705. Provides the evidence that DNA repair functions were lost in several of the long-term lines. Travisano, M. , and R. E. Lenski ....

Genetic Code

Genetic Code   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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3,000 words
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2

...An account of the discovery of the structure of DNA and the discoveries that followed, including the elucidation of the genetic code. Judson, O. P. , and D. Haydon . “ The Genetic Code: What Is It Good For? An Analysis of the Effects of Selection Pressures on Genetic Codes. ” Journal of Molecular Evolution 49 (1999): 539–550. An analysis of claims that the universal genetic code is optimal. Liu, D. R. , and P. G. Schultz . “ Progress Toward the Evolution of an Organism with an Expanded Genetic Code. ” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA ...

Homology

Homology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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...1994. Schmidt-Ott, U. “ Different Ways to Make a Head. ” BioEssays 23 (2001): 8–11. Shubin, N. , and P. Alberch . “ A Morphogenetic Approach to the Origin and Basic Organization of the Tetrapod Limb. ” Evolutionary Biology 20 (1986): 319–387. Van Valen, L. “ Homology and Causes. ” Journal of Morphology 173 (1982): 305–312. Wagner, G. P. “ The Biological Homology Concept. ” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 20 (1989): 51–69. Günter P....

Sperm Competition

Sperm Competition   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...R. Birkhead , and C. M. Lessells . “Sperm Precedence in Zebra Finches Does Not Require Special Mechanisms of Sperm Competition. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 259 (1995): 223–228. Cook, P. A. , and N. Wedell . “ Non-fertile Sperm Delay Female Remating. ” Nature 397 (1998): 486. Dziuk, P. J. “ Factors That Influence the Proportion of Offspring Sired by a Male Following Heterospermic Insemination. ” Animal Reproduction Science 43 (1996): 65–88. Ginsberg, J. R. , and U. W. Huck . “ Sperm Competition in Mammals. ”...

Darwin, Charles

Darwin, Charles (1809–1882)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005

.... New York, 1959. The expurgated version is available in F. Darwin (1887). Barrett, P. H. The Papers of Charles Darwin . Chicago, 1977. A complete anthology of Darwin's publications other than books. Barrett, P. H. , P. J. Gautrey , S. Herbert , D. Kohn and S. Smith , eds. Charles Darwin's Notebooks, 1836–1844: Geology, Transmutation of Species, Metaphysical Enquiries . Ithaca, 1987. Transcriptions of Darwin's notes made as he created his theory. Bowler, P. J. Charles Darwin: The Man and His Influence . Oxford, 1990. A solid and accessible...

Heterozygote Advantage

Heterozygote Advantage   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
4,349 words
Illustration(s):
6

...no inbreeding (Table 1). Consider a gene with two alleles, A and a, whose frequencies are p and q , so that p + q = 1. In a population with random mating, the Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium ( HWE ) defines the relationship between allelic and genotypic frequencies. Assumptions underlying the HWE include infinite or very large population size, and negligible impact from natural selection, migration, and mutation. The genotypic proportions produced by random mating are p 2 , 2 pq , and q 2 , for AA, Aa, and aa, respectively (Table 1). These are the genotypic...

Sibling Rivalry

Sibling Rivalry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005

...American Naturalist 133 (1989): 846–868. Stamps, J. , A. B. Clark , P. Arrowood , and B. Kus . “ Parent–Offspring Conflict in Budgerigars. ” Behaviour 94 (1985): 1–40. Trillmich, F. “Attendance Behavior of Galapagos Fur Seals.” In Fur Seals: Maternal Strategies on Land and at Sea , edited by R. L. Gentry and G. L. Kooymann , pp. 168–185. Princeton, N.J., 1986. Trillmich, F. “ The Behavioural Ecology of Maternal Effort in Fur Seals and Sea Lions. ” Behaviour 114 (1990): 3–20. Douglas W....

Cell-Type Number and Complexity

Cell-Type Number and Complexity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005

...“ Biological Complexity. ” Journal of Theoretical Biology 104 (1983): 7–20. McShea, D. W. “ Complexity and Evolution: What Everybody Knows. ” Biology and Philosophy 6 (1991): 303–324. Clear discussion of the concept of complexity in biology. Valentine, J. W. “ Two Genomic Paths to the Evolution of Complexity in Body plans. ” Paleobiology 26 (2000): 513–519. Valentine, J. W. , A. G. Collins , and C. P. Meyer . “ Morphological Complexity Increase in Metazoans. ” Paleobiology 20 (1994): 131–142. Traces rise in cell-type number through time. James W....

Natural Selection

Natural Selection   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005

...shown in Table 1. Table 1. Simple Population Genetic Model of Natural Selection Moth Color Dark Light Genotype CC Cc cc Frequency at birth p 2 2 pq q 2 Fitness 1 1 1 − s Frequency in survivors p 2 / 1 − sq 2 2 pq / 1 − sq 2 q 2(1 − s ) / 1 − sq 2 p = frequency of C allele q = frequency of c allele p + q = 1 The frequencies of the three kinds of genotype at birth are given by the Hardy–Weinberg equation, p 2 + 2 pq + q 2 + 1. The fitness, in this simplified example, is the relative chance of survival. Conventionally, the fitness of the best...

Codon Usage Bias

Codon Usage Bias   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005

...Usage Bias Living organisms use 20 amino acids to construct their protein molecules. These amino acids are coded for by 64 codons of three nucleotides (e.g., the sequence TTT codes for phenylalanine). Almost all organisms use the same genetic code, which is referred to as the “universal code” (Table 1). Of the 20 amino acids, 18 are encoded by more than one codon. However, these synonymous codons (different codons that code for same amino acid) are not used uniformly; in almost every organism that has been studied, there are distinct preferences for...

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