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p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

common ratio effect

common ratio effect  

A famous violation of expected utility theory that seems intuitively appealing to many human decision makers, a typical example being as follows. An urn contains 100 chips numbered 1 to 100. First, ...
coefficient of relationship

coefficient of relationship  

The proportion of alleles in any two individuals that are replicas inherited from a common ancestor.
affirming the antecedent

affirming the antecedent  

In conditional reasoning, arguing validly from a hypothetical proposition of the form If p then q that, because p therefore q. For example, given the proposition If the burglars entered by the front ...
House-Tree-Person technique

House-Tree-Person technique  

A projective test developed by the US psychologist John N. Buck (1906–83) and first published in the journal Clinical Psychology Monographs in 1948 in which the respondent is asked to make freehand ...
Stanford-Binet test

Stanford-Binet test  

Used to gauge intelligence, it consists of a series of questions and problems grouped for applicability to ages up to 16 years. Some questions require verbal recognition and others recognition of ...
infradian rhythm

infradian rhythm  

Any biological rhythm with a period of less than a day. See alpha wave, basic rest-activity cycle, beta wave, delta wave, gamma wave, sensorimotor rhythm, theta wave. See also biological clock, ...
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  

One of the most popular personality questionnaires, especially in commercial and industrial contexts, designed to implement the theory of function types first suggested in 1923 by the Swiss ...
dose-response curve

dose-response curve  

The functional relationship between the dosage of a drug and the size or strength of a physiological or behavioural response to it. It is almost invariably monotonically increasing, with larger ...
problem solving

problem solving  

Cognitive processing directed at finding solutions to well-defined problems, such as the Tower of Hanoi, Wason selection task, or a water-jar problem, by performing a sequence of operations. Problem ...
Williams syndrome

Williams syndrome  

A hereditary condition, caused by a defect (a deletion) in chromosome 7, marked by a characteristic ‘elfin’ facial appearance (including large eyes, a wide mouth, and small chin), hypercalcaemia, ...
neural network

neural network  

ora general class of machine‐learning algorithms, inspired by the neural structure of the brain, in which multiple simple processing units are connected by adaptive weights.
common ratio effect

common ratio effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...that u (16) < 1.25 × u (10). But the preference of C over D implies that .20 × u (16) > .25 × u (10), which simplifies to u (16) > 1.25 × u (10), a contradiction. In general, if x > y > z are sums of money, and p and q are non-zero probabilities, then the common ratio effect occurs if a decision maker prefers the prospect py + (1 −  p ) y to px + (1 −  p ) z , and also prefers p (1 −  q ) x + (1 −  p )(1 −  q ) z + qz to p (1 −  q ) y + (1 −  p )(1 −  q ) y + qz . Compare Allais paradox , Ellsberg paradox , modified...

House–Tree–Person technique

House–Tree–Person technique n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...is then asked 20 questions about each drawing. Interpretations of the drawings are based on the assumptions that the drawing of the house reveals aspects of the respondent’s home life and family relationships, the tree reflects unconscious feelings about the self, and the person shows aspects of the self, interpreted similarly to the Draw-a-Person test . The test gained a certain notoriety during the 1990s when it was recommended as a device for discovering evidence of sexual abuse in children but was criticized for lack of validity . H–T–P abbrev...

access consciousness

access consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,400 words

...for the rational control of thought and action. Nonetheless, many of the deepest questions surrounding P‐consciousness can be—and often have been—formulated as questions about the relationship between P‐consciousness and A‐consciousness. This entry examines three such questions: (1) How are the concepts of A‐consciousness and P‐consciousness related? (2) How are the properties of A‐consciousness and P‐consciousness related? (3) How is the study of P‐consciousness related to that of A‐consciousness? 1. The concept of access consciousness 2. The...

TAT

TAT abbrev.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... abbrev . Thematic Apperception Test, one of the best known projective tests , consisting of 31 pictures (originally 20) of emotionally charged social events and situations printed on cards, from which the test administrator selects 20 depending on the age and sex of the respondent, plus a blank card that is presented last. For each picture, the respondent is asked to make up a story that the picture could illustrate, describing the relationship between the people, what has happened to them, what their present thoughts and feelings are, and what the outcome...

Islamic philosophy

Islamic philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
868 words

...contributions began to appear as the period of translation of classics and the absorption of ancient teaching advanced, after the 8th century. Work published during the 20th century has increasingly asserted unexpected anticipations of relatively modern Western thought by the major Islamic philosophers, especially from the 9th to the 15th centuries. Typically, M. S. Sheikh ( 1982 : p. x and passim ) has propounded themes in the systems of Al-Farabi, Avicenna, Al-Ghazzali , Ibn Khaldun , and others as prefigurings of the ideas of Descartes ...

facial expressions: origins

facial expressions: origins   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
809 words

...he was the kindest of men and most deeply attached to his family. In the 20th century it became fashionable to deny any genetic influence on human behaviour and it was claimed that all behaviour patterns, including facial expressions, were purely the result of cultural learning. Darwin's earlier ideas were rejected and in the 1930s psychologist Otto Klineberg's conclusions were summarized by the phrase: ‘what is shown on the face is written there by culture’. In the second half of the 20th century this school of thought was discredited and new research...

deduction

deduction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,219 words
Illustration(s):
1

...16). In other words, a (categorical) proposition is thought of as a statement that a certain relation holds between its subject S and its predicate P . Propositions are then classified according to the relation asserted to hold: Universal Affirmative—‘All S are P ’ ( SaP ), Universal Negative—‘No S are P ’ ( SoP ), Particular Affirmative—‘Some S are P ’ ( SiP ), Particular Negative—‘Some S are not P ’ ( SoP ). A syllogism is the making of a new connection between terms which goes via a third, or middle term. Syllogisms were traditionally...

falsification

falsification   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
969 words

...positions of the stars near the sun, photographed during its eclipse in 1919 , which supported Einstein's ideas against Newton. (Published 1987) Richard L. Gregory Campbell, T. D. (1974). ‘Evolutionary epistemology’. In Shilpp, P. A. (ed.), The Philosophy of Karl Popper . Gregory, R. L. (1981). Mind in Science . Medawar, P. (1967). The Art of the Soluble . —— (1969). Induction and Intuition in Scientific Thought . Popper, K. R. (1959). The Logic of Scientific Discovery . —— (1970). ‘Logic of discovery or psychology of research?’ In Lakatos, I. ,...

intelligence differences

intelligence differences   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,455 words

...to find how many underlying traits are needed to account for the associations among the test scores. Over the 20th century the suggestions ranged as follows: one (Spearman), a huge number ( Thomson ), about seven unrelated intelligences ( Thurstone ), perhaps 120 distinct abilities ( Guilford ), seven to nine-and-a-half ( Gardner ) (Neisser et al. 1996 ). The answer that most researchers accept today was available in the first half of the 20th century, from the British psychologists Philip E. Vernon and Sir Cyril Burt . Both suggested that human...

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