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p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

space station

space station   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
743 words

...Space: A History of Skylab (1983). Tim Beardsley , The International Space Station: A Work in Progress , Scientific American (May 1999): 20–23. Leonard David , Special Report: International Space Station , Aerospace America (July 1999): S1–S15. Kirsten Roundtree , The International Space Station a Year Later , Launchspace (October/November 1999): 35–39. http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/station/index.html. Victor P. Budura,...

monsters

monsters   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
614 words

...and public concern over biological manipulations of life, these practices became more commonly known and regulated. Katherine Park and Lorraine Daston , Unnatural Conceptions: The Study of Monsters in 16th and 17th Century France and England , Past and Present 92 (1981): 20–54. Marie-Helene Huet , Monstrous Imagination (1993). David Williams , Deformed Discourse: The Function of the Monster in Mediaeval Thought and Literature (1996). Jan Bondeson , A Cabinet of Medical Curiosities (1997). Janet...

zoology

zoology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
937 words

...zoology a thriving branch of the life sciences. Erwin Stresemann , Ornithology. From Aristotle to the Present, foreword and epilogue by Ernst Mayr (1975). Mary P. Winsor , Starfish, Jellyfish, and the Order of Life (1976). William Coleman , Biology in the Nineteenth Century (1977). Garland E. Allen , Life Science in the 20th Century (1978). Garland E. Allen , Thomas Hunt Morgan (1978). Mary P. Winsor , Reading the Shape of Nature: Comparative Zoology at the Agassiz Museum (1991). Giuliano...

Antimatter

Antimatter   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,881 words

...parity violation raised its ugly head, everything would stay quite pretty. The technical name for this contrivance was CP invariance. C stood for charge conjugation, which guarded the distinction between matter and antimatter, whilst P concerned the mirror reflections of parity. Physicists loved this remedy. C and P could both fail individually, but if they always cooperated as CP, the Universe remained beautifully symmetrical, though more subtly so. ‘Who would have dreamed in 1953 that studies of the decay properties of the K particles would lead to a...

Meitner, Lise

Meitner, Lise (1878–1968)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
858 words

...Project in Los Alamos in 1943 , but she was unwilling to work on a nuclear weapon and remained in Sweden. She retired in 1954 and in 1960 moved to England, to be near Frisch and his family in Cambridge. Lise Meitner , Looking Back , Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 20, no. 11 (1964): 2–7. O. R. Frisch , Lise Meitner 1878–1968 , Biographical Memoirs of the Fellows of the Royal Society, London 16 (1970): 405–420. O. R. Frisch , What Little I Remember (1979). Ruth Lewin Sime , Lise Meitner: A Life in Physics (1996). Elisabeth Crawford , ...

Plant diseases

Plant diseases   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,904 words

...partly because landowners continued to export grain while the inhabitants starved. As Jane Francesca Wilde (Oscar's mother) put it: There's a proud array of soldiers—what do they round your door? They guard our masters' granaries from the thin hands of the poor . At least 20 per cent of the world's crop production is still lost to pests, parasites and pathogens, and the figure rises to 40 per cent in Africa and Asia. Plant diseases can also devastate species in the wild, as when the bark-ravaging fungus Cryphonectria parasitica crippled every last...

Cloning

Cloning  

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

...of genes, but in making an egg cell the mother discards half of her genes. The mating game is costly in energy and time, not to mention the peril from predators and parasites during the process, or the aggro and angst in the competition for mates. ‘I have spent much of the past 20 years thinking about this problem,’ John Maynard Smith at Sussex confessed in 1988 , concerning the puzzle that sex presents to theorists of evolution. ‘I am not sure that I know the answer.’ For a shot at an explanation, Maynard Smith imagined a lineage of cloned herrings. In...

Arabidopsis

Arabidopsis   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,170 words

...and detect, by their malfunctions, the genes responsible for various traits and actions in the healthy plant. So what better than this weed that completes its life cycle in less than six weeks, often fertilizing itself, and producing thousands of seeds? Fully grown it measures 20–30 centimetres from roots to tip. Arabidopsis pops up harmlessly and uselessly from the Arctic to the Equator. The species name thaliana honours Johannes Thal , who recorded it in the Harz Mountains of Germany in the 16th century. As garden walls are a favourite habitat, some...

Biodiversity

Biodiversity  

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

...240 to 260 different species and subspecies in each two-hectare site. When Manokaran revisited the sites as a graduate student in 1985 , he found that 20 per cent of the species recorded in the 1940s had disappeared—gone extinct locally. Other species known from elsewhere in the Malaysian forests had replaced them. The turnover is not remarkable if you consider that you would find differences greater than 20 per cent if you simply sampled another plot a kilometre away. A much larger study of the natural flux of tropical tree species began in Panama in 1981 ,...

antinuclear movement

antinuclear movement   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,588 words

...in 1975 , which minimized the dangers of reactors, was widely criticized. Since 1974 , not a single utility in the United States has ordered a reactor, although American manufacturers continue to construct them for other nations. About 100 aging reactors provided around 20 percent of domestic electricity in the United States in 2000 . The corresponding numbers were considerably higher in France and Japan. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) began to promote construction of civilian reactors in the 1950s but did not give sufficient attention to...

Plate motions

Plate motions   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,688 words

...moved to make room for it? Everyone except a few mavericks, mostly in Europe, knew perfectly well that the continents had been rooted to their spots since the creation of the world. There followed the most comprehensive overthrow of previous beliefs to occur in science during the 20th century. The next few years brought vindication of Vine's idea of the magnetic tape recorder, confirmation of continental drift, and a brand-new theory called plate tectonics. A key contribution came in 1965 from Tuzo Wilson at Toronto. He realized that some of the long...

Household Technology

Household Technology   Reference library

Christopher W. Wells

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...reached $22.9 billion in 2008 , made significant inroads across all regions and social levels, with Nielsen, the media research company, estimating that 73 percent of all households in the United States owned some sort of personal computer in 2008 ( Jackson et al., 2011 , p. 20). In combination with Internet access, personal computers connect households to a variety of networks—personal, professional, social, and commercial—that create new, very different opportunities for their users, the implications of which were not yet clear in the early...

Deepwater Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill

Deepwater Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill   Reference library

Stephen Haycox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill At about 9:45 p.m. on 20 April 2010 , methane gas escaping from an oil well being drilled from a massive drilling rig on the ocean surface into the floor of the Gulf of Mexico five thousand feet below ignited and exploded, starting an inextinguishable fire that caused the drilling rig to collapse into the sea after burning for 36 hours. Although 115 workers on the rig escaped by lifeboat, 11 were killed. The rig, Deepwater Horizon , a structure that could be dynamically positioned, had drilled the last phase of an...

Technological Enthusiasm

Technological Enthusiasm   Reference library

Robert C. Post

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

.... New York: Vintage Books, 1965. Ferguson, Eugene S. “The American-ness of American Technology.” Technology and Culture 20 (1979): 3–24. Ferguson, Eugene S. “Toward a Discipline of the History of Technology.” Technology and Culture 15 (1974): 13–30. Hindle, Brooke . The Technology in Early America: Needs and Opportunities for Study . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1966. Hughes, Thomas P. American Genesis: A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiasm . New York: Viking Press, 1989. Kidder, Tracy . The Soul of a...

Silliman, Benjamin, Sr.

Silliman, Benjamin, Sr. (1779–1864)   Reference library

Julie R. Newell and Elspeth Knewstubb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...sole editor for the next 20 years. The American Journal of Science , commonly referred to as Silliman’s Journal , the nation’s first general scientific periodical, offered a venue where Americans could read about the experiments and observations of their countrymen and publish their own work. Silliman used the journal to call for further support for science and scientific projects and to present his own views on scientific disputes. His students included Amos Eaton, Edward Hitchcock, James Dwight Dana, Benjamin Silliman Jr., Oliver P. Hubbard, and Charles...

Tuskegee project, the

Tuskegee project, the   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...“free treatment” including “spinal shots,” which were spinal taps without anesthesia—although anesthesia was available. Although PHS officials began discussing issues related to research on human subjects in 1945 , they did not issue guidelines on clinical research until more than 20 years later. Revisions of the 1966 Surgeon General's guidelines on clinical research and training grants established a system of peer review at each investigator's home institution. The most important revision was that peer review panels were to have members with nonscientific...

Red Cross, American

Red Cross, American   Reference library

John F. Hutchinson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Robert W. DeForest grounded its relief work on the principles of scientific philanthropy and the charity organization movement; and Henry P. Davison gave it legitimacy on Wall Street, headed its endowment fund, and directed its extensive operations during World War I. The Red Cross provided both planned assistance to the military and an outlet for civilian patriotic enthusiasm; the wartime boom brought the organization 20 million members and a treasury surplus of $127 million by 1919 . Salaried administrators proliferated despite its tradition of...

Townes, Charles H.

Townes, Charles H. (1915–)   Reference library

Orville R. Butler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...; Bell Laboratories ; Military, Science and Technology and the ; Nobel Prize in Biomedical Research ; Physics ; Quantum Theory ; and Religion and Science .] Bibliography “Charles H. Townes.” Interview by Finn Aaserud , Niels Bohr Library & Archives, College Park, Md., 20 and 21 May 1987. http://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/4918.html (accessed 3 April 2012). Charles Hard Townes, a Life in Physics: Bell Telephone Laboratories and World War II, Columbia University and the Laser, MIT and Government Service, California and Research in Astrophysics . An...

Lindbergh, Charles

Lindbergh, Charles (1902–1974)   Reference library

Peter L. Jakab

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Charles ( 1902–1974 ), aviator . Lindbergh burst upon the world stage on 20– 21 May 1927 when he piloted his single-engine Ryan monoplane, The Spirit of St. Louis , solo across the Atlantic. Although this was the signature achievement of his life, Lindbergh’s impact went well beyond his epic flight. Reared on a farm in Little Falls, Minnesota, the son of a farm-bloc congressman, Lindbergh in 1920 enrolled as an engineering student at the University of Wisconsin. He dropped out after two years, learned to fly, and spent the summer of 1923 ...

Pesticides

Pesticides   Reference library

Frederick R. Davis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

....] Bibliography Anonymous . “Organophosphate Insecticides.” Pesticides News 34 (December 1996): 20–21. Carson, Rachel . Silent Spring . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962. Davis, Frederick Rowe . “Pesticides and Toxicology: Episodes in the Evolution of Environmental Risk Assessment.” PhD diss. Yale University, 2001. Dunlap, Thomas . DDT: Scientists, Citizens, and Public Policy . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981. Gianessi, Leonard P. , and James Earl Anderson . Pesticide Use Trends in U.S. Agriculture: 1979–1992 . Washington, D.C.:...

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