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p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

Household Technology

Household Technology   Reference library

Christopher W. Wells

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...reached $22.9 billion in 2008 , made significant inroads across all regions and social levels, with Nielsen, the media research company, estimating that 73 percent of all households in the United States owned some sort of personal computer in 2008 ( Jackson et al., 2011 , p. 20). In combination with Internet access, personal computers connect households to a variety of networks—personal, professional, social, and commercial—that create new, very different opportunities for their users, the implications of which were not yet clear in the early...

Deepwater Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill

Deepwater Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill   Reference library

Stephen Haycox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill At about 9:45 p.m. on 20 April 2010 , methane gas escaping from an oil well being drilled from a massive drilling rig on the ocean surface into the floor of the Gulf of Mexico five thousand feet below ignited and exploded, starting an inextinguishable fire that caused the drilling rig to collapse into the sea after burning for 36 hours. Although 115 workers on the rig escaped by lifeboat, 11 were killed. The rig, Deepwater Horizon , a structure that could be dynamically positioned, had drilled the last phase of an...

Technological Enthusiasm

Technological Enthusiasm   Reference library

Robert C. Post

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

.... New York: Vintage Books, 1965. Ferguson, Eugene S. “The American-ness of American Technology.” Technology and Culture 20 (1979): 3–24. Ferguson, Eugene S. “Toward a Discipline of the History of Technology.” Technology and Culture 15 (1974): 13–30. Hindle, Brooke . The Technology in Early America: Needs and Opportunities for Study . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1966. Hughes, Thomas P. American Genesis: A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiasm . New York: Viking Press, 1989. Kidder, Tracy . The Soul of a...

Silliman, Benjamin, Sr.

Silliman, Benjamin, Sr. (1779–1864)   Reference library

Julie R. Newell and Elspeth Knewstubb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...sole editor for the next 20 years. The American Journal of Science , commonly referred to as Silliman’s Journal , the nation’s first general scientific periodical, offered a venue where Americans could read about the experiments and observations of their countrymen and publish their own work. Silliman used the journal to call for further support for science and scientific projects and to present his own views on scientific disputes. His students included Amos Eaton, Edward Hitchcock, James Dwight Dana, Benjamin Silliman Jr., Oliver P. Hubbard, and Charles...

Red Cross, American

Red Cross, American   Reference library

John F. Hutchinson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...Robert W. DeForest grounded its relief work on the principles of scientific philanthropy and the charity organization movement; and Henry P. Davison gave it legitimacy on Wall Street, headed its endowment fund, and directed its extensive operations during World War I. The Red Cross provided both planned assistance to the military and an outlet for civilian patriotic enthusiasm; the wartime boom brought the organization 20 million members and a treasury surplus of $127 million by 1919 . Salaried administrators proliferated despite its tradition of...

Townes, Charles H.

Townes, Charles H. (1915–)   Reference library

Orville R. Butler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...; Bell Laboratories ; Military, Science and Technology and the ; Nobel Prize in Biomedical Research ; Physics ; Quantum Theory ; and Religion and Science .] Bibliography “Charles H. Townes.” Interview by Finn Aaserud , Niels Bohr Library & Archives, College Park, Md., 20 and 21 May 1987. http://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/4918.html (accessed 3 April 2012). Charles Hard Townes, a Life in Physics: Bell Telephone Laboratories and World War II, Columbia University and the Laser, MIT and Government Service, California and Research in Astrophysics . An...

Lindbergh, Charles

Lindbergh, Charles (1902–1974)   Reference library

Peter L. Jakab

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...Charles ( 1902–1974 ), aviator . Lindbergh burst upon the world stage on 20– 21 May 1927 when he piloted his single-engine Ryan monoplane, The Spirit of St. Louis , solo across the Atlantic. Although this was the signature achievement of his life, Lindbergh’s impact went well beyond his epic flight. Reared on a farm in Little Falls, Minnesota, the son of a farm-bloc congressman, Lindbergh in 1920 enrolled as an engineering student at the University of Wisconsin. He dropped out after two years, learned to fly, and spent the summer of 1923 ...

Pesticides

Pesticides   Reference library

Frederick R. Davis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

....] Bibliography Anonymous . “Organophosphate Insecticides.” Pesticides News 34 (December 1996): 20–21. Carson, Rachel . Silent Spring . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962. Davis, Frederick Rowe . “Pesticides and Toxicology: Episodes in the Evolution of Environmental Risk Assessment.” PhD diss. Yale University, 2001. Dunlap, Thomas . DDT: Scientists, Citizens, and Public Policy . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981. Gianessi, Leonard P. , and James Earl Anderson . Pesticide Use Trends in U.S. Agriculture: 1979–1992 . Washington, D.C.:...

Abortion Debates and Science

Abortion Debates and Science   Reference library

Tracy A. Weitz and Carole Joffe

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...no. 6 (2008): 436–450. Coleman, P. K. “Abortion and Mental Health: Quantitative Synthesis and Analysis of Research Published 1995–2009.” The British Journal of Psychiatry 199, no. 3 (2011): 180–186. Daling, J. R. , K. E. Malone , L. F. Voigt , E. White , and N. S. Weiss . “Risk of Breast Cancer Among Young Women: Relationship to Induced Abortion.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86, no. 21 (1994): 1584. Eckholm, E. “New Laws in 6 States Ban Abortions after 20 Weeks.” New York Times , June 26, 2011, p. A10. Fabrizi, L. , R. Slater , ...

Medical Education

Medical Education   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...memorably described as “the so-called medical department of the so-called University of Maryland” ( Flexner, 1910 , p. 5), most of the new schools operated on a proprietary basis; that is, they were commercial businesses owned by the medical faculty, typically five to seven local physicians who aspired to make a profit from students fees: $3–5 to matriculate, $15 per ticket for specific courses, $5–10 to attend a dissection, and $15–20 to graduate. Although the proprietary schools sometimes obtained their charters from existing colleges and universities,...

Gerontology

Gerontology   Reference library

Carole Haber

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...Philosophy . New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1903. Looks at disease, old age, and death and argues that the infirmities of old age can be overcome through “phagoctyes” that destroy debilitating microbes in the body. Nascher, I. L. “Geriatrics.” New York Medical Journal 90, no. 8 (August 1909): 428–429. Nascher names the field of geriatrics and calls for physicians to concentrate on the disease of the old. Scommegna, Paola . “U.S. Growing Bigger, Older, and More Diverse.” Population Reference Bureau , 2004, n.p. ...

Literature and Science

Literature and Science   Reference library

Priscilla Wald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...without precedent or name. “What traits ultimately define a human? Where is the borderline of ‘humanness’?” one prominent cultural commentator ominously asked in 1987 , and “if we do not know how to define ‘human,’ what about ‘human rights’?” ( Toffler, 1987 , p. 20). Although experimental modernists such as Stein were important precursors for postmodern writers, the challenge to the human registered in their experimental work as a play of ultimately unmoored signifiers, with the self in particular rendered as a mise en abyme. No longer a...

Geological Surveys

Geological Surveys   Reference library

Rex C. Buchanan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...hazards (Allis, 2011 , p. 1). State funding decreased, but grant and contract funding from the federal government and other sources increased. Total staffing in state surveys was 1,980 in 2011 , down from a peak of 2,900 in the 1980s (Allis, 2011 , p. 2). The average state survey had a staff of 40 and a total annual budget of just over $4 million, although they ranged in size from Texas (with an annual budget of $31 million) to several state surveys with annual budgets of less than $1 million per year (Allis, 2011 , p. 4). Studies showed that a large...

Religion And Science

Religion And Science   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...the Nineteenth Century.” In God and Nature: A History of the Encounter between Christianity and Science , edited by David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers , pp. 322–350. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986. Moran, Jeffrey P. Teaching Sex: The Shaping of Adolescence in the 20th Century . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000. Myers-Shirk, Susan E. Helping the Good Shepherd: Pastoral Counselors in a Psychotherapeutic Culture, 1925–1975 . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009. Nelson, G. Blair . “‘Men before...

Hospitals

Hospitals   Reference library

Bernadette McCauley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...growing civil rights movement ( Fink and Greenberg, 1989 , p. 78; Sacks, 1988 , p. 38). Amendments in 1974 to the Taft-Hartley Act ( 1947 ), which had exempted voluntary hospitals from collective bargaining requirements, facilitated union efforts ( Stevens, 1989 , p. 303). Prominent among health-care workers’ efforts to organize was the National Union of Health and Hospital Workers ( 1199 ), which began as a pharmacist’s union in New York City in the 1930s ( Fink and Greenberg, 1989 , p. 20). The Impact of Medicare and Medicaid. Optimism that the new...

Missiles and Rockets

Missiles and Rockets   Reference library

J. D. Hunley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...at the AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference, Centennial of Naval Aviation Forum, 20–22 September 2011, Virginia Beach, Virginia. NASA, Space Shuttle . “Space Shuttle Program: Spanning 30 Years of Discovery.” http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/main/index.html , no pagination (accessed 20 March 2012). A competent, up-to-date summary of the Space Shuttle program’s history. Sutton, George P. , and Oscar Biblarz . Rocket Propulsion Elements . 8th ed. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. The most recent...

Surgery

Surgery   Reference library

Thomas P. Gariepy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...In 1843 , Oliver Wendell Holmes ( 1809–1894 ) asserted that to avoid spreading puerperal fever, physicians should not attend obstetric cases unless they had washed their hands in calcium chloride and changed their clothes. This advice went unheeded, and it was more than another 20 years before sustained efforts to control infectious diseases and wound infections began. On 16 October 1846 , William T. G. Morton ( 1819–1868 ), a dentist, convinced Dr. John Collins Warren to give sulfuric ether to a patient undergoing surgery at the Massachusetts General...

Robots

Robots   Reference library

Lisa Nocks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...other businesses followed. Initially, companies used industrial robots in hazardous applications including forging and die-casting. Subsequently, General Motors led in the U.S. use of industrial robots for such operations as welding, spray-painting, and assembly. During the next 20 years, improvements were made in programming, sensing, maneuverability, and safety. Initial Progress. Research in computer-assisted manufacturing, begun in the late 1950s, was integrated into a number of projects. The “Rancho Arm,” a six-joint prosthetic arm developed at Rancho Los...

Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology   Reference library

James Ravin and Michael F. Marmor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...Otology in 1896 . (Ophthalmology and otology separated amicably in 1979 .) The American Academy of Ophthalmology has become the largest association of eye care providers in the world and sponsors the largest annual ophthalmological conference in the world. In 2012 , it had about 20 thousand U.S. ophthalmologists and 7 thousand international members (American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2012 ). From 1878 to 1971 the section on ophthalmology of the American Medical Association served similar functions as the American Academy of Ophthalmology, but the American...

Obesity

Obesity   Reference library

Susan E. Lederer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...Carl . “Pharma Goes to the Laundry: Public Relations and the Business of Medical Education.” Hastings Center Report 34 (2004): 18–23. Fletcher, Isabel . “Defining an Epidemic: The Body Mass Index in British and US Obesity Research 1960–2000.” Sociology of Health & Illness 20 (2013): 1–16. Gibbs, W. Wayt . “Obesity: An Overblown Epidemic?” Scientific American 292 (2005): 70–77. Jafari, Mehraneh D. , Fariba Jafari , Monica T. Young , Brian R. Smith , Michael J. Phalen , and Ninh T. Nguyen . “Volume and Outcome Relationship in Bariatric Surgery in...

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