You are looking at 1-20 of 91 entries  for:

  • Human Rights and Immigration x
clear all

View:

Overview

p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

International Committee of the Red Cross

International Committee of the Red Cross  

Founder of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and promoter of the Geneva Conventions for the protection of war victims, the International Committee of the Red Cross endeavors ...
P.E.N.

P.E.N.   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,493 words

...for peace—not words for war. Many P.E.N. speeches thus contain reference to Article 20 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which specifically prohibits propaganda for war. Membership, Committees, and Congresses As of September 2008 , P.E.N. comprised 146 centers in 104 countries on six continents—with a total membership of more than ten thousand writers. International P.E.N. has many subcommittees, including a Writers for Peace Committee (established in 1984 and coordinated by the Slovene P.E.N.; chair, Edvard Kovac), a Women...

Jimmy Carter

Jimmy Carter   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,437 words

...“Our commitment to human rights must be absolute,” declared Carter in his 20 January 1977 inauguration speech. A few days later he was presented with a perfect opportunity to display this commitment when Andrei Sakharov complained to him about Moscow's persecution of Soviet dissidents. Carter wrote back that the United States would “promote respect for human rights not only in our country but also abroad”—a bland statement that nonetheless provoked anger in Moscow (Boyd, p. 196). The State Department also pushed the new policy. During the first month of...

Index on Censorship

Index on Censorship   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,309 words

...Projects . http://www.indexoncensorship.org/index-on-censorship-projects/ . Index on Censorship. Projects, 2008–2009 . http://www.indexoncensorship.org/?p=356 . Index on Censorship. Winners of the Index on Censorship Freedom of Expression Awards 2007 . Press release. March 14, 2007. http://www.gristcommunications.com/media/Winners%20of%20the%20Index%20on%20Censorship%20Freedom%20of%20Expression%20Awards%202007.pdf . International Freedom of Expression Exchange. Amnesty Awards Recognise Persecuted Journalists . June 24, 2008. ...

Javier Perez de Cuellar

Javier Perez de Cuellar   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,591 words

...Perez de Cuellar to be impartial and trustworthy and allowed him to negotiate an end to the conflict. To achieve this peace agreement, he rewrote Resolution 598, the resolution that was the basis for Iran's acceptance of the settlement. This resulted in the end of the conflict on 20 August 1988 . Thus, in this example we see that Perez de Cuellar was active in promoting peace, with some attention paid to human rights, and when the Security Council gave him the room to maneuver, he was successful. El Salvador. Perez de Cuellar and the United Nations played a...

Lebanon

Lebanon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,844 words

...penalty imposed except by law” ( Salem , p. 126). Article 9 provides guarantees for freedom of conscience “provided that public order is not disturbed” ( Salem , p. 126). It also continues a long tradition in Lebanon of delegating matters of personal status to the religious authorities. Article 13 covers the basic freedoms of speech, assembly, and association, whereas Article 15 protects rights of ownership. Section B of the constitution deals with powers, and under the heading “General Provisions” (B.I.), Article 20 guarantees the independence of judges in...

Nanjing Massacre

Nanjing Massacre   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,648 words

...Rosen, Georg . A Report to German Foreign Ministry, January 20, 1938. Document No. 2722/1011/38, Archives of German Embassy in China, R9208/2190/24–27, Bundesarchiv [Federal Archives], Berlin. Shang, Teh-yi . Written testimony, July 26, 1946. Document No. 1735, Exhibit No. 206, Microfilm Set T918, Roll 12, Court Papers, Journal, Exhibit, and Judgment of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Record Group 238, National Archives II, College Park, Md. Sone, Hubert Lafayette . Letter to P. F. Price, January 16, 1938. Missionary Files: Methodist...

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,586 words

...Mugabe accused him of aiding and abetting racism, and a mob invaded the Supreme Court shouting “Kill the judges!” (Meredith, p. 641). The result of land seizures and civil and political rights violations was unprecedented economic decline. The unemployment rate in 2005 was estimated at 80 percent, and the real growth rate in 2007 was estimated at -6.1 percent. The HIV/AIDS infection rate in 2006 for individuals aged 15 to 49 was 20.1 percent of the population, a health catastrophe that was exacerbated because the ruined economy could not provide the drugs...

Slobodan Milošević

Slobodan Milošević   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,375 words

...demagoguery and violence” ( Glenny , p. 36). Most of the biographical accounts of Milošević's life agree that his primary goal was simply to hold on to power and that he was a “brilliant tactician but a disastrous strategist,” was “good with improvisations,” and had an “imagination appropriate to that of a poker player” ( Ramet , Thinking about Yugoslavia , p. 160). Milošević was driven by a hunger for power and domination, was “authoritarian with ‘sultanist’ tendencies” ( Ramet , Thinking about Yugoslavia , p. 161). Milošević's initial aim was to fill...

Steve Biko

Steve Biko   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,597 words

...student interests were being represented by white student leaders, black articulations would not come to maturity. For Biko, the integration achieved by NUSAS was “a one-way course, with the whites doing all the talking and the blacks the listening” (Biko, I Write What I Like , p. 20). Although traumatic for NUSAS, the break transformed the political landscape of South Africa. Believing that a separatist black student organization might help it promote apartheid “separate development” and dilute the African National Congress ( ANC ) tradition of nonracialism...

Simon Wiesenthal

Simon Wiesenthal   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,417 words

...a Nazi nor a war criminal” (p. xxx). In 1993 Eli Rosenbaum , former general counsel of the World Jewish Congress, published Betrayal: The Untold Story of the Kurt Waldheim Investigation and Cover-up , in which he claimed that Wiesenthal was covering up for Waldheim. Wiesenthal fought back and stated in an interview that in a world where people believe in Jewish conspiracies, “Accusations from Jewish sources must be able to stand up to all tests of credibility” (Kamm, “Wiesenthal Defends His Role in Waldheim Affair,” p. A14). An international committee...

Nigeria

Nigeria   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,527 words

...(p. 356). More specifically, using a 0 to 10 index of democracy, Ross found that “a state that is highly reliant on oil exports—at the 1995 level of Angola, Nigeria, or Kuwait—would lose 1.5 points on the democracy scale due to its oil wealth alone” (p. 342). Looking specifically at sub-Saharan Africa, Nathan Jensen and Leonard Wantchekon similarly found that “from the period between 1970 and 1995 , countries with higher levels of natural resource dependence tended to be more authoritarian than their less resource dependent counterparts” (p. 836)....

Right to Development

Right to Development   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,752 words

...beings have a responsibility for development” ( Henkin et al., p. 299). Article 3(1), on the other hand, clearly gives this responsibility to the state: “States have the primary responsibility … for the realization of the right to development” (p. 299). Article 4(2) points in a different direction by calling attention to the critical duties of the rich, developed states to provide the less developed nations “with appropriate means and facilities to foster their comprehensive development” (p. 300). Ultimate responsibility for ensuring this right is thus...

Jus Cogens

Jus Cogens   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,882 words

...Human Rights on the Human Rights Situation in the Islamic Republic of Iran . At paragraph 19. UN Doc. E/CN.4/1985/20, 1985. Restatement (Third) of the Law: The Foreign Relations Law of the United States . § 102. St. Paul, Minn.: American Law Institute, 1987. United Nations. Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 2001 . Vol. 2, pt. 2. A/CN.4/SER.A/2001/Add.1. “Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties.” 1155 United Nations Treaty Series . P. 331. http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/1_1_1969.pdf . Weissbrodt, David , Joan...

Science

Science   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,374 words

...from first principles by human intellect” (UNESCO, Freedom and Culture , p. 7). To supply an informed and research-based foundation for the propagation of human rights norms, in 1947 Huxley circulated a UNESCO-sponsored, open-ended questionnaire to more than thirty eminent persons of the day, including seven scientists who included the sociologist Jean Haesaert , the paleontologist Pierre Teilhard de Chardin , the physiologist R. W. Gerard , and the anthropologist A. P. Elkin . They were asked to give their views as scientists on the formulation of...

José Ayala Lasso

José Ayala Lasso   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,141 words

...of 25 June 1993 recommended to the General Assembly that it establish the office of a High Commissioner for Human Rights. Ayala Lasso chaired the UN General Assembly working group that considered the Vienna Declaration and drafted Resolution 48/141, adopted by consensus on 20 December 1993 , establishing the post and defining its mandate. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali nominated Ayala Lasso, and the General Assembly confirmed the appointment. Ayala Lasso started his four-year mandate on 5 April 1994 . Work as High Commissioner The priorities...

Democracy and Right to Participation

Democracy and Right to Participation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,572 words

...Rights: CCPR Commentary . 2d ed. Kehl, Germany: N.P. Engel, 2005. Official Report, House of Commons . Vol. 444. Speech of Winston Churchill before the House of Commons, November 11, 1947. Powell, G. Bingham . “Liberal Democracies.” In Encyclopedia of Government and Politics , 2d ed., edited by Mary Hawkesworth and Maurice Kogan , pp. 205–222. London and New York: Routledge, 2004. Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women . Twenty-fifth session, UN Doc. A/56/38, July 2–20, 2001. Report of the World Conference against...

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,829 words

...public attention. In 1964 Nelson Mandela's speech from the dock enhanced his stature as, in the words of the London Times , “a colossus of African nationalism” (quoted in Nesbitt, p. 158). In the decades that followed, to cite Hermann Giliomnee, a leading South African historian, Mandela held many South Africans enthralled in a state of “charismatic bewilderment” (Giliomee, p. 648). Mandela was an indispensable figure in ensuring the popular legitimacy of a relatively conservative political settlement, for few other figures in the ANC pantheon enjoyed the...

Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices

Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,468 words

...in change within particular societies? How well have the various national committees met their respective duties? Writing a decade after the founding of the IAC, Fran P. Hosken of Women's International Network noted: “Everything has changed. At last it is possible to talk about female genital mutilation without getting a blank stare or being attacked as racist, as I have been so many times” (p. 3). Second, limitations on funds constitute a constant refrain in reports from the IAC. In 2005 expenditures were budgeted at slightly under $1 million. (In...

Weapons of Mass Destruction

Weapons of Mass Destruction   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,862 words

...has been upheld by the Commission on Human Rights’ special rapporteurs on human rights and the environment (report of 6 July 1994 , UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1994/9) and on the adverse effects of the illicit movement and dumping of toxic and dangerous products and wastes (report of 20 February 2006 , UN Doc. E/CN.4/2006/42, paras. 34–43). In its Nuclear Weapons opinion, the ICJ examined environmental issues in the context of international humanitarian law, considering that in an armed conflict, states had “to take environmental considerations into account in...

View: